Scitech-on Recent Advancements in Science & Technology
Abstract Book



Title
About College
Patron's Message
Principal & Director's Message
Aim of Symposium
Words of Thanks
Abstract Book Information
Invited Talks

ABSTRACTS
Life Science
Chemical Science
Computer Science




Scitech - 2019
National Symposium Abstract Book

Sponsored by:
Gujarat State Biotechnology Mission(GSBTM)
Department of Science & Technology
Government of Gujart

Association with:
Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University, Junagadh

Chief Editor :
Dr. H. L. Kansagra
Principal,
College of Computer, Science & Information Technology (CCSIT)
Green City, Bypass Road, Nr. Chobari Railway Crossing,
Junagadh - 362001. (Gujarat)

Editorial Board:
Dr. D. G. Makadiya
Dr. H. L. Kansagra
Mr. G. R. Kansagra
Dr. G. T. Ladani
Mr. Vitthalbhai Vaishnani

Co Editor:
Head, Department of Life Science, CCSIT, Junagadh
Head, Department of Chemical Science, CCSIT, Junagadh
Head, Department of Computer Science, CCSIT, Junagadh

Publisher:
Mr. G. R. Kansagra
Director,
College of Computer, Science & Information Technology (CCSIT)
Green City, Bypass Road, Nr. Chobari Railway Crossing,
Junagadh - 362001. (Gujarat)
Contact: 92280 06940
website : ccsit.co.in, E - mail : ccsitjunagadh@gmail.com

Second Editoin: Jan - 2019
Pages : 100

INDEX

Sr.
No.

Invited Talks

1 Cancer: The reality of metabolism
2 Anticancer drug discovery: Past, Present and Future
3 Evaluation of Enabling Sustainable Technology for Efficient Synthetic Organic Chemistry
4 From herbal medicine to complementary and alternative nanomedicine
5 E - Learning: Future of Education System for Advancements in Technology

Life Science

Sr.
No.

Title of Oral / Poster

1 Exploring white rot fungi Agaricomycetes sp AGAT in bioremediation
2 Synergistic action of linezolid with nano - silver against Escherichia coli: a case for judicious use of linezolid for gram - negative bacterial species
3 CRISPR - cas9 an art of gene editing and application in genetic engineering
4 Invitro antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory and anti - oxidant activity of Aegle marmelos leaves
5 Study of physico - chemical status of entire Ozat river in saurashtra region
6 Biotechnology and pomology (past, present and future)
7 Haloalkalophiles as source of amylase for industrial application
8 Spirulina
9 Primary, secondary and tertiary structural analysis of disease resistance protein rga4 of Zea maize using bioinformatic tools
10 A study on avifauna of nanawada wetland
11 Two - Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis of Protein Profile from Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea ssp. Virginia) at Flower Development Stage
12 Assessment of bacterial diversity at different locations of Junagadh (Gujarat, India)
13 Mosses for monitoring air pollution
14 Assessment of fungal diversity at different locations of Junagadh (Gujarat, India)
15 Biodiesel from waste cooking oil
16 Autophagy: mechanism of cells & tissues renovation
17 Plant growth promotional activity inherited by seed endophytes in groundnut
18 Nenofiber use to repair brain damage
19 KLOTHO: The ageing - suppressor gene
20 Isolation, characterization and biofertilization properties of Halophiles from saline soil sample.
21 Genetically modified food
22 Electrophoretic analysis of cow meat adulteration with other species
23 Nanopesticide – alternative of chemical pesticide used in chili leaf curl viral disease
24 Formulation of Probiotic Dark Chocolate from different Samples.
25 Inhalable form of messenger RNA
26 Iron is neurotoxic in retinal detachment
27 Food safety
28 Marburg virus disease and clinical aspects
29 Isolation and Characterization of Amylase Producing Bacteria from Saline Soil Sample, Veraval, Gujarat., India
30 Applications of Extremophiles
31 Isolation and characterization of Groundnut (Arachis hypogea) rhizospheric bacteria for plant growth promotion
32 Thalassemia
33 Exopolysaccharide producing bacteria
34 Assessment of microbial diversity at different locations of Junagadh (Gujarat, India)
35 Genetic mutation responsible for tuberculosis vulnerability
36 Mammalian autophagy
37 Isolation, enumeration and characterization of oil degrading microorganisms
38 Storage study of Seer Fish and Karikadi Shrimp and their microbiological analysis
39 Cisgenesis and Intragenesis as new strategies for crop improvement
40 Spheroids: Three dimensional culture (3d) model in human cancer research
41 Combine metabolomics and proteomics approach to understand plant biotic stress resistance
42 Isolation and characterization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from the saline soil of kodinar
43 Isolation of fungi from human scalp and antimicrobial activity of anti - dandruff shampoos and natural sources
44 Assessment of amylase production efficiency of halophilic bacteria isolated from bedi coastal region of gujarat
45 Isolation, speciation and antifungal susceptibility of candida
46 Nanotechnology in edible coating: A new strategy for post harvesting treatment of food
47 Scientists learn how common virus reactivates after transplantation (cytomegalovirus)
48 Isolation and characterization of spore forming potassium solubilizing bacteria from rhizospheric soil
49 Autophagy: A revolutionary mechanism
50 Composting
51 Phage cocktail – an alternative therapy to antibiotic
52 Clostridium to treat Cancer: Dream or Reality?
53 Natural products for combating cancer
54 The structure and biological function of Creg
55 Fermented Food & Benefits
56 3 - D Bioprinting of living structures with built - in chemical sensors
57 The new designed protein that mimics interleukin – 2 without toxic effects and works against cancer in animal models
58 Multidrug resistance in bacteria
59 Advanced cancer and it`s treatment
60 New biosensors catch cancer cells before they metastasize
61 Gene additing
62 Biomarkers in traumatic brain injury
63 Gummy smile
64 Turmeric and Curcumin: Biological actions and medicinal applications
65 Stem cell (umbilical cord blood) banking
66 Climate change effects on Coral Reefs
67 Biodegradation of plastic
68 Genome editing with “CRISPR “
69 Proplast formation
70 Accidental mutant enzyme
71 Advance study on biofilm systems in waste water
72 Malaria
73 Inhalable form of messenger RNA
74 Advance study on biofilm system in waste water
75 Probiotic
76 Biodiversity
77 Diagnostic Bacteriology
78 Bineural beats
79 Thiophilic adsorption a new method for protein fractionation
80 Nanovaccination
81 Hydroponic farming technique
82 Endangered wings
83 DNA Replication
84 Lignin degradation by White rod Basidiomyteces
85 Canine distemper virus
86 petroleum hydrocarbon
87 Bioremediation
88 Targeting DNA repair to combat cancer chemoresistance
89 Genome editing : CRISPR
90 Edible Vaccines
91 Can plant talk to each other?
92 Light pollution under the ocean
93 Curcumin : The anticancer agent of breast cancer
94 Gold nanoparticle used in cancer therapy
95 Algae as biofuel
96 Bioplastic from food waste
97 Bacteria halts growth of superbugs : New hope for tackling antibiotic resistance
98 Biofuel production from Jatropha
99 Genetically modified plants from home air cleaning
100 Green roofs: Raisin the roof on urban sustainability
101 Aplastic anemia
102 Drugs, brain and behavior : The science of addiction
103 Photos Ivy as biofilter
104 Noise pollution under ocean
105 Plastic degrading bacteria
106 Beneficial role of cow excretion
107 Nano robots: Used in cancer therapies
108 Lyme disease
109 Mobile phone radiation effect on human health
110 Energy production from plastic waste
111 Recent advance in next generation snakebite antivenoms
112 Edible vaccines and immunization
113 Electricity generating bionic mushrooms
114 Autophagy
115 Palm vein technology
116 Papain, A plant enzyme of biological importance
117 Herbal smoking
118 Tooth : An important source of DNA in forensic odontology
119 Swine flu
120 Biofuel: A future alternative of fossil fuel
121 Usefullness of algae as medicine to our society
122 Rubella vaccine
123 Bionic mushrooms
124 Deinococcusradiodurans: Can combate heavy radiations?
125 Microbial fuel cell
126 Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants
127 Extensively drug resistant tuberculosis
128 Purple bacteria ‘BATTERIES’ turn sewage into clean energy
129 Paper battery powered by bacteria
130 Microorganism act as heroes of oilspills degradation
131 Microbial fuel cell
132 Third generation of biofuel from microalge
133 Endophytic microorganism
134 Next generation DNA sequencing
135 The ancient science of nenomedicine: “BHASMA”
136 Nanotechnoloy in drug
137 DNA nano - signature found in all types of cancer could impruve detection process
138 Degradation of plastic by microbes
139 Bionic girl
140 Molecular imaging & cancer therapy
141 Umbilical cord stem cell
142 Blood group system
143 Nanorobotics
144 Wireless pacemaker for the brain
145 Tuberculosis
146 Regina protein could be key to keeping stem cells young
147 Water pollution
148 Nanorobotics
149 Probiotic food
150 Cosmtic microbiology
151 Metagenomics: Genomic analysis of microbial communities and uncultured microorganisms
152 Coffee consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer
153 Tea and health: Studies in humans
154 Microbes in cancer treatment
155 Why children absorb more microwave radiation than adult
156 Household waste management
157 Microplastic
158 Lineage leukemia
159 Recombinant DNA technology
160 Nanovaccination
161 Wireless body area network
162 Antimicrobial activity of herbs
163 Bionic Eye
164 Pollution control equipment
165 Edible waterbottle
166 Conversation of plastic wastes into liquid fuels
167 Anti - microbial resistance
168 Microorganisms in waste management
169 HIV - 1 Vaccine
170 Ulcerative colitis
171 Aerophonic
172 Alzheimer’s disease
173 Jatropha plant biofuel
174 Food born diseases
175 Medicinal and Aromatic plants
176 Recognizing resilience: Learning from the effects stress on the brain
177 The mechanism of neurotransmitter
178 Bacillus anthracis
179 Pest control using nanotechnology
180 Atmospheric pollution: Causes and effects
181 Ozone depletion
182 Ebola virus disease
183 Mechanisms of Cancer Drug Resistance
184 Microbial fuel cells
185 Cell phones and brain tumors: A review including the long - term epidemiologic data
186 Immunotargeted DNA nanostructures
187 Platinum drugs for cancer
188 Bacteria life cycle
189 Data analysis of temperature and humidity of Junagadh city
190 Marine diversity of poshitra
191 Economically valuable fishes of saurashtra cost
192 Various tools used to study wildlife
193 Types of beak in birds
194 Integration of organic farming practices in cultivation of ayurveda herbs: An innovative approach
195 A case study of influenza an affected in human being
196 Lung cancer in human
197 Nano based drug delivery system
198 Plant as expression system for recombinant proteins production: the green perspective
199 The strange, beautiful and powerful world of microbes

Chemical Science


Sr.
No.

Title of Oral / Poster

1 Synthesis and characterization of pyrimidine - 5 - carbonitrile derivatives and their biological screening
2 Evaluation of Psoriatic Activity of Polyherbal Formulation
3 Prodrugs: The drug development
4 Nano medicine & Nano technology: The future of pharmacy
5 Photodynamic therapy
6 Virtual issue: Behavioral research in chemical neuroscience
7 Recovery of nutrients from Chicken Litter to Create a slow - release fertilizer
8 Nootropics: Towards the mind
9 Synthesis of Crotamine Gold Nanoparticles and characterization of their Binding activity
10 An essential element in cancer treatment - Boron
11 Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
12 Chemical modifications to RNA: A new layer of gene expression regulation
13 Polymorphism: The phenomenon affecting on performance of drugs
14 Nanotechnology for solar energy collection and conversion
15 KEVLAR: Info about polymer
16 Molasses
17 Isocyanide based multicomponent reactions for the synthesis of heterocycles
18 Solvent free synthesis and its advantages
19 Nanomedicine : An endless revolution
20 Organic azides : An unique class of compound
21 Graphene - a future material
22 “FLIPPED” Metal oxide cage can sort CO2 from CO
23 Aroma of rain
24 Sustainable plastics
25 Drug discovery and development
26 Polymers and their classification
27 Graphene over view
28 Fighting stress and anxiety
29 Aspartame: Artificial sweetener
30 Universal waste and scrap management
31 The hydrogen bomb
32 Chemistry for air conditioner
33 Nanotechnology of medicine
34 Plasma state
35 Mesoporous material for drug delivery
36 Petrichor: The smell of rain
37 Beet root (Herbal alternative to synthetic indicator)
38 Chemists synthesize ‘Game - Changing’ Antibiotic Teixobactin
39 Teixobactin antibiotics
40 Nano fertilizers
41 Poison chemistry - Cyanides compounds
42 Ice stupa
43 Liquid crystal
44 The chemistry of mummification
45 Heroin The most addictive drug ever
46 Green chemistry in India
47 Pollution change in ocean chemistry
48 Biodegradable polymers
49 DDT affected in human body and environmental
50 NaNO - Urea
51 Storage of hydrogen as a fuel
52 Methane production from municipal solid waste
53 An overview of nanogel drug delivery
54 Petrochemical
55 Silver nanoparticles
56 Ozone: A pollutant and protector gas
57 Chemical contaminants in milk and public health concerns
58 Ocean acidification
59 Nano drugs : Nano gold in treatment of cancer
60 Chemical weapons
61 Crystalline metal - organic frameworks
62 Biofuels
63 Bioplastic
64 A new way of harness wasted methane
65 A green approach to making ammonia
66 Hydrogen fuel

Computer Science


Sr.
No.

Title of Oral / Poster

1 Paypal payment gateway
2 Programing language ruby
3 Credit card or debit card
4 Internet of things
5 Holographic memory
6 G.R.U.H. (Internet of Things)
7 Eye gaze technology
8 Wireless computing
9 6G Technology
10 Virtual class
11 Data science for R
12 Digital Locker
13 5G Technology
14 Types of networking
15 5 Pen PC Technology
16 Cloud computing
17 Sniffer for mobile phones
18 E - Ball Technology
19 Virtual private network
20 Google glass
21 Brain fingerprinting
22 Blue brain
23 Machine learning
24 Digital marketing
25 SEO (Search Engine Optimization)
26 Artificial intelligence
27 Augmented reality
28 Digital twin

 


CANCER: THE REALITY OF METABOLISM
Suhas J. Vyas

Department of Life Sciences, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University, Junagadh
vsuhas.13@gmail.com

The term "Cancer" is such a disastrous disease in the world which has occupied second position in all disease around the globe. The percentage of cancer in human being is in the increasing trend since last three decade. United States has every third patient suffering from cancer in diseased people, likewise there are many countries of the world who are trying to fight against this enormous disease called "Cancer". Since, scientists are trying to find a concrete solutions for various types of cancer, but these solutions are for the time being of few years of survival, yet not 100 percent guaranteed for the complete curing of the disease. In this paper, data of percentage of cancer throughout the world and in India are shown along with the working metabolism of cancer will be understood along with the path followed by the cancer cells to grow and develop a new metabolic pathway for their cell division. Treatment methods of curing cancer by the body will also be explained under this topic.
Keywords: cancer, world scenario, metabolism, treatment.


ANTICANCER DRUG DISCOVERY: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE
Dr. Naval P. Kapuriya

Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry and Forensic Science, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University, Junagadh - 362263

After over half a century of chemotherapy research, cancer remains one of the most difficult life - threatening diseases and difficult to treat because the advanced cell biology and molecular biology is still unable to identify the unique difference between malignant and normal cells. Therefore, it is important for medicinal chemist to find ideal therapeutic agents to kill malignant cells with high selectivity and low toxicity.

Systemic chemotherapy for cancer began in the 1940s and 1950s with the pioneering studies by Rhoads, Goodman, Gilman and Philips showed that a mustard gas (i.e. S(CH2CH2Cl)2) exhibit cytotoxic effect. From large - scale random screening programs over the next 25 years by NCI, have identified several new anticancer agents including: a) alkylating agents, cross linking DNA and thereby blocking cell division (e.g., nitrogen mustards), b) antimetabolites (e.g., methotrexate), c) antimitotics, (e.g., Taxol, vinblastine), d) antibiotics, (e.g., mitomycin, anthramycine), e) drugs with hormonal activity (e.g., estramustine). By the late 1980s, advances in molecular biology and understanding of regulatory and signaling networks, several new targets were identified for chemotherapy. This resulted emergence of a number of new anticancer drugs such as 1) estrogen antagonist (e.g., tamoxifen), 2) Aromatase inhibitor (e.g anastrozole), 3) EGFR kinase inhibitor (e.g., gefitinib) and 4) farnesyl transferase inhibitor (e.g., tipifarnib), 5) multi - kinase inhibitor(e.g., sorafenib, sunitinib) were discovered. More recently, advances in biotechnology have led to the emergence of a different category of anticancer therapeutics known as Biosimilars. These include a wide array of products isolated from natural sources such as humans, animals, and microorganisms. Two of the most recent approvals are anticancer therapeutics. Bevacizumab - awwb is a biosimilar of bevacizumab (Avastin) and it was approved in September 2017 by the FDA for treatment of certain adult patients with cervical, colorectal, kidney, and lung cancers.

Hence in the current scenario, target based anti - cancer drug discovery and Biosimilars emerged as promising therapeutic regime for futuristic development.


EVALUATION OF ENABLING SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY FOR EFFICIENT SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Dr. Vaibhav P Mehta

Principal, Faculty of Science, Marwadi University, Rajkot - 360003

Among the fundamental transformations in the field of synthetic organic chemistry, transition - metal - catalyzed reactions provide some of the most attractive methodologies for the formation of C-C and C-heteroatom bonds. As a result, the application of these reactions has increased tremendously during the past decades and cross - coupling reactions became a standard tool for synthetic organic chemists. Furthermore, a tremendous upsurge in the development of new catalysts and ligands, as well as an increased understanding of the mechanisms, has contributed substantially to recent advances in the field. Traditionally, organic reactions are carried out by conductive heating with an external heat source (for example, an oil bath). Recent developments in the field of microwave assisted organic synthesis have contributed towards better understanding of the mechanism and discovery of novel synthetic methodologies for drug discovery. This lecture will highlight few of the contributions in terms utilization of enabling technologies for synthesis of novel pyrazinone compounds.


FROM HERBAL MEDICINE TO COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE NANOMEDICINE
Dr. Sougata Ghosh

Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, School of Science, R.K. University, Rajkot, Gujarat.

Designing environmentally benign green route for synthesis of metal nanoparticle is one of the most important areas of nanotechnology which has gained prime attention for developing broad spectrum nanomedicine. Phytochemicals provides an abundant source of reducing agents which efficiently convert metal ions to metal nanoparticles and further capping of the same. Increasing multidrug resistance is a global concern which indicates an increasing demand for the exploration of novel antimicrobial agents. Thus, complementary and alternative nanomedicine is an excellent choice for strategic design of therapy against infectious diseases. However, the most important concern is to achieve monodispersed metal nanoparticles using a biological route. Hereby, we are actively involved in addressing the problem for fabrication of tailor made nanohybrids using medicinal plants by optimizing various process parameters like temperature, pH, concentrations of the reactants and the type of halide ions. We have used saponin rich extracts to design core shell nanoparticles which are more potent compared to individual components of the same. Phenolic and flavonoid compounds act as reducing and capping agents while saponins play a key role in shape evolution. Various nanohybrids were synthesized and functionalized with bioactive molecules like diosgenin and curcumin in order to enhance their antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidant and anticancer activities. Thus, we venture to explore broad spectrum effects of complementary and alternative nanomedicine for healthcare and drug discovery.


E - LEARNING: FUTURE OF EDUCATION SYSTEM FOR ADVANCEMENTS IN TECHNOLOGY
Dr. Vaishali Parsania

Associate Professor, Department of MCA, Atmiya University, Rajkot

Living in this era as a technocrat and serving in the field of technology is a big challenge! Every day you have to pace with change...... revolution in technology, variation in market demand, amendment in serving platforms! Innovations using various technologies are faster than we can think. In this situation, to learn and adopt new - fangled technologies is more important than ever! Nowadays there are many online learning platforms available to learn something new by your own. They are just like a virtual teacher and boon to all learners. The interactivity is such platforms are prodigious. Every learner can feel like personal coaching followed by various assignments, projects, tests, quiz sets etc. as evaluation tools. Many online platforms are providing certificates at the end and it is value addition for every learner. Most of such platforms provide a list of courses free of cost as well some advance chargeable courses. Dear learners, your eagerness to learn is the only requirement for entering into the world of online learning resources. Such courses ranges from various technology of computer science like C, Python, Perl, Oracle, Java to management courses, Communication courses, history, science, economics courses to music and art courses.

Few online Platforms are introduced in the paper offering quality courses. Such platforms develop self - learning attitude and erudition capability in student, which is most required in the life of student to be a lifelong learner.

Best Wishes to all curious and enthusiastic learners!


EXPLORING WHITE ROT FUNGI AGARICOMYCETES SP AGAT IN BIOREMEDIATION
Dr. Archana Pandey

School of Science, Swarnim Startup & Innovation University, Gandhinagar 382421
pandeyarchana606@gmail.com

Hydrocarbon pollution is a perennial problem not only in India but throughout the globe. A plethora of microorganisms have been reported to be efficient degraders of these recalcitrant pollutants. In the present study the Basidiomycetous a fungal isolate Agaricomycetes sp. AGAT was isolated from wood bark collected from Anand, Gujarat India. The isolate Agaricomycetes sp. is able to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the contaminated soil. The basidiomycetous fungal Agaricomycetes sp. was able to grow on 100 ppm Pyrene, Phenanthrene, Fluorene and Fluoranthene as a sole source of carbon in minimal medium. Maximum degradation of 78.53%, 85.05%, 20.5% and 70.49% of Phenanthrene, Pyrene, Fluoranthene and Fluorene respectively. The depletion in the residual PAHs in the culture medium was determined by HPLC. By GC - MS analysis metabolites were identified as 1 - hydroxypyrene and phthalic acid from Pyrene, 9H - Fluoren - 9 - ol from Fluorene, Fluorene,4 - [1,2 - dihydroxethyl] from Fluoranthene and 9,10 - dihydro - 9,10 - dihydroxyphenanthrene from Phenanthrene. Phytotoxicity study of degraded metabolite was also studied. The same isolate was also explored for dye decolourization Brilliant Blue RN.
Keywords: Agaricomycetes sp. AGAT, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Phytotoxicity, Brilliant Blue RN


SYNERGISTIC ACTION OF LINEZOLID WITH NANO - SILVER AGAINST ESCHERICHIA COLI: A CASE FOR JUDICIOUS USE OF LINEZOLID FOR GRAM - NEGATIVE BACTERIAL SPECIES
Samir A. Anuja,*, Harsukh P. Gajerab, Baljibhai A. Golakiyab

a Ph.D. Scholar, School of Science, R.K. University, Rajkot, Gujarat, India.
b Department of Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, Gujarat, India.
samiranuj@gmail.com

Linezolid has long been known as an effective antibiotic. However, efflux - mediated resistance issues with linezolid have led to limited use of this antibiotic, especially for Gram - negative pathogens. Overcoming this issue can be achieved by using nano - silver with its membrane damage property. The purpose of the present study was to investigate that linezolid could also prevent the growth of Gram - negative bacteria and even kill the cells regardless of their efflux - mediated resistant mechanism along with nano - silver. In this study, we selected Escherichia coli MTCC 443 as a model to study the combinatorial effect of nano - silver and linezolid to combat efflux - mediated resistance in E. coli MTCC 443 cells. Based on our results, it can be suggested that alternation of zeta potential due to the interactions of nano - silver towards membrane proteins may be correlated to the enhancement of membrane permeability, which allows the penetration of linezolid into the cells. For the first time, a possible mechanism was also proposed to explain this phenomenon. Our findings reveal a new combinatorial option that can increase the efficiency of already known antibacterial agent to overcome the problem of efflux - mediated resistance.
Keywords: Linezolid; Nano - silver; Zeta potential; Membrane permeability.


CRISPR - CAS9 AN ART OF GENE EDITING AND APPLICATION IN GENETIC ENGINEERING
Ms.Urvashi Rajani

Smt.U.B. Bhagat Mahila Science College, Amreli (Gujrat)
urvashirajani007@gmail.com

Recent advance in genome engineering technologies based on CRISPR associated RNA guided endonuclease cas - 9 has become a powerful method for making changes to the genome of many organism. First discovered in bacteria as a part of an adaptive immune system. Here we describe about mechanism of CRISPR - cas9, including classification and general structure of cas - 9 protein. Second we highlight on recent advances of its applications. Third we focus on limitations and ethical issue. Finally we discuss the prospective application and challenges of several promising technique from CRISPR - cas9.


INVITRO ANTIDIABETIC, ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTIINFLAMMATORY AND ANTI - OXIDANT ACTIVITY OF AEGLE MARMELOS LEAVES
P.N.Timbadiya, M.K.Mandaviya, Baljibhai Golakiya

Department of Biochemistry, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh - 362001, Gujarat
adi.timbadia@gmail.com

This study was performed to investigate the phytochemical screening, anti - microbial, antioxidant, antidiabetic as well as anti - inflammatory properties from Aegle marmelos leaf different extracts. This investigation was achieved by extraction of medicinal plants in different solvents (Hexane, Chloroform, Methanol, water and 90% Methanol). Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, separation and identification of phytochemicals having antidiabetic activity from bioactive extracts. Results revels Aegle marmelos leaf all polar extracts had highest phytochemicals. The inhibition of alpha amylase and alpha glucocidase activity found in methanolic extract that was 67.51∓0.36 and 76.88∓1.05. It shows that methanolic extract have higher antidiabetic activity. The plant leaves rich in flavanoids 63.64∓0.45 and phenol 53.45∓0.39. It was observed that the extracts of Aegle marmelos (Beal) leaf had higher DPPH scavenging activity in methanol extract than that of the other extracts 79.52 ∓ 0.35%. The inhibition of albumin denaturation exerted by Aegle marmelos (Beal) leaf had higher activity in methanol extract than that of the other extracts 65.30∓1.07%.


STUDY OF PHYSICO - CHEMICAL STATUS OF ENTIRE OZAT RIVER IN SAURASHTRA REGION
Savan P. Tank, Suhas J. Vyas

Department of Earth and Environmental Science, KSKV Kachchh University, Bhuj - Kachchh.
Department of Life Sciences, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University, Junagadh

Water is crucial resource required by living organisms. It is a most essential basic component to all living being as most of the biochemical reactions that takes place through the metabolism and growth of living organisms involve water. Without water life is not possible to sustain on planet earth hence it is termed as "universal solvent" as most of the inorganic chemicals are dissolved in water. Water occupies 71% of the planet earth surface, out of all the available water on the earth surface only 3.0% constitute fresh water which is present in the form of ice caps, glaciers, rivers, lakes, ponds, streams and ground water resources. The most important and vulnerable freshwater system is the river and plays an important role in the sustenance of life. The decline in the quality of water in freshwater systems threatens its sustainability and has become a cause for concern. Pollution of water is due to increased human population, industrialization, use of fertilizers in agriculture and manmade activity. This paper deals with the physico-chemical parameters with Standard Deviation, minimum, Maximum and Standard Error of Ozat River water in Saurashtra region, Gujarat. Colour, pH, EC, acidity, alkalinity, turbidity, calcium, total hardness, total dissolved solids, chloride, magnesium, potassium, fluoride and sodium were analysed during Winter 2018 - 19 season. Parameters were within the permissible limits. The results indicate that the river is non - polluted and can be used for domestic, irrigation and fisheries.


BIOTECHNOLOGY AND POMOLOGY (PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE)
Miss Subhrajyoti Mishra and Dr. K. M. Karetha

Department of Horticulture, College of Horticulture, JAU, Junagadh, Gujarat.
subhrajyoti.ss235@gmail.com

India has witnessed a voluminous increase in horticultural production, especially in fruit crops over the last few years providing more than 30% to national income from the agricultural sector and gaining the 2nd rank after China. Significant progress has been made in area expansion resulting in higher production. In recent years food security for the increasing population is of utmost importance in a developing country like India. But the various factors like climate change, increased disease and pest problems, wide genetic diversity in fruit crops, quality clones are the major drawback for enhancing productivity. Advances in biotechnological techniques like plant tissue culture, genetically modified crops etc, provided new methods for rapid production of high - quality, disease - free, and true - to - type planting material. These techniques not only offers a valuable alternative in fruit trees propagation studies but is also useful for virus control and management of genetic resources. Nowadays the range of routine technologies of plant tissue culture has expanded to include somatic embryogenesis, somatic hybridization, virus elimination, in vitro mutagenesis, anther or microspore culture production of haploids, embryo rescue technique or embryo culture, protoplast culture, and somatic fusion. Out of the abovementioned techniques, the most exploited one for mass production of fruit plants is micro propagation. To produce virus - free plants, meristem culture and micro grafting techniques have been standardized in few crops like banana, citrus etc. Hence the exploitation of the biotechnology can provide the solution for fruit production to scientists as well as to growers.


HALOALKALOPHILES AS SOURCE OF AMYLASE FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION
Purvi L. Vaghasiya & Nitiksha K. Devani

Smt.U.B. Bhagat Mahila Science College, Amreli (Gujrat)
patelpurvi7495@gmail.com & nitudevani420@gmail.com

Amylase can be obtained from several haloalkalophilic bacteria and actinomycetes. However enzyme and bacterial source has dominated application in industrial sector. The application of an amylase in industrial reactions depends on its unique characteristics, such as its action pattern, substrate specificity, major reaction production, optimal temperature and pH 9. Bacterial a - amylase preferred for application in starch processing and textile industries due to its action at higher saline condition and neutral to alkaline condition at pH 9. Generally, production of this enzyme has been carried out submerged fermentation. Among the bacterial sources Bacillus sp., Amphibacillus sp., Marinobacter sp., Halobacterium sp. and Saccharopolyspora sp. are important species. The present review was focused on bacterial amylase and the review assesses the following chapter amylase, microorganism and amylase, physiology of amylase and, fermentation studies on bacterial amylase production and commercial application of amylase. This is valuable information for enzyme production and optimization of amylase from haloalklophiles has a bright future toward the improvement and production of novel enzymes for entirely new area of industrial and biotechnological applications involving molecular enzymology. The developing novel techniques in genetic engineering combined with better knowledge of structure and function allow fulfilment of industrial needs and exploration of novel application in future.
KEY WORDS: Haloalkalophiles, Actinomycetes, Enzymes, Amylase.


SPIRULINA
Savaliya Urvashi Thakarshibhai & Zalavadiya Mayanka Kamleshbhai

Smt.U.B. Bhagat Mahila Science College, Amreli (Gujrat)
urvashi.savaliya21795@gmail.com

Spirulina is a "microalgae" ,"Blue green algae" that has been consumed for centuries due to high nutrient value & health benefits. The two species of Arthrospira platensis & A.maxima cultivated worldwide. Spirullina harvested from Lake Texococo in Mexico in the 1960s, but there is no references to its use there as a daily food source after the 16th century dried in to cakes called "Dihe". Dihe is made up of Spirulina & studied a bloom of algae in sodium hydroxide production facility.it has high nutrient (carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamin, minerals) it has grown in warm water, alkaline water with the using of cultural medium .Adding chemical supplements Sodium bicarbonate, Magnesium sulphate , urea provide the Mesophillic temperature ,frequently agitation it requires sunlight & harvest after 2 - 3 weeks, filter it & Dry .It would be laboratory certified it has no causes any harmful effect after packing process occur. Spirulina beneficial for human health work as Antioxidant , Anti - inflammatory, Anti - cancer properties ,Reduce blood pressure, increase energy, improve muscle strength but side effect are autoimmune disease ,nausea, renal disorder high toxicity, MND if present contamination .Now days Spirulina available in Tablet, Flake, Powder form easy to consume it.


PRIMARY, SECONDARY AND TERTIARY STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF DISEASE RESISTANCE PROTEIN RGA4 OF ZEA MAIZE USING BIOINFORMATIC TOOLS
Payal Patel

P.M. Patel college of PG & Research Institute, Anand Agricultural University
patelpayal1831995@gmail.com

Disease resistance protein RGA4 of Zea Maize is mitochondrial carrier - like protein having UniProtKB ID: B6STS5. B6STS5 has been identified as an important protein involved in ADP binding. Therefore B6STR5 is considered as a significant protein for various diseases. The experimental 3D structure of B6STS5 is not available. Therefore, present study aims for analysis of primary, secondary and tertiary structure of disease resistance protein RGA4 of Zea Maize using bioinformaticstools and proposing the best 3D model after evaluating various parameters. Methods: Primary structure analysis was done by ProtParam, secondary structure analysis was done by SOPMA and Jpred4 and Tertiary structure analysis was done by using two different softwares namely SPDBV and I - Tasser. All the predicted 3D models were analyzed and validated by PROCHECK, ProQ and SolvX. Conclusion: In this study, homology model was developed for B6STS5 using SPDBV and I - Tasser. The models developed were validated using PROCHECK, ProQ and SolvX. These analyses validated the homology model 2 produced by I - Tasser is best, robust as well as reliable enough to be used for future study.


A STUDY ON AVIFAUNA OF NANAWADA WETLAND
Yusufkhan Pathan1

Department of Life Science, Somnath Science College
pathanyn4@gmail.com

Nanawada wetland is situated 10 km eastward of Kodinar town in Gir - Somnath district. The wetland is bordered by three villages: Nanavada, Pipalava and Chikhli. Maximum depth of the lake is 2 m. During the high tide, particularly on full moon and no moon days, tidal water from the Arabian Sea touches the dam. The maximum water is seen during July and August. About 50 species of birds were observed during field time. The wetland regularly harbors more than 20,000 birds during winter, thus it fulfills A4iii criteria. At least two globally threatened species are seen here every winter, so it also qualifies A1 criteria. Besides this, four Near Threatened species have been seen till now, and more are likely to occur. The A4i criteria of Birdlife International (undated) states that any site which has =1% of the biogeographic population of a congregatory water bird species could be considered as an IBA. This wetland suffers from the litany of problems that beset other wetlands in India - overgrazing in the catchment area resulting in siltation, spread of invasive species and drainage of water when bird populations are at their peak in winter. Keyword: Nanawada, Wetland, Avifauna, Lake.


TWO - DIMENSIONAL GEL ELECTROPHORESIS OF PROTEIN PROFILE FROM GROUNDNUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA SSP. VIRGINIA) AT FLOWER DEVELOPMENT STAGE
Nimita Umretiya1*, Hitesh Jasani2 & B. A. Golakiya3*

1Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari
*nimiumretiya12@gmail.com

Groundnut is one of the principal economic crops of the world and rich source of oil, protein, carbohydrates, minerals, fiber and vitamins. Proteomic analysis reveals the translational products of gene expression during flowering stage. Profiles of total flower developmental proteins isolated from different stages (Bud, Flower and Peg) cultivar GJG - 22, were studied using two - dimensional gel electrophoresis by trichloroacetic Acid/Acetone precipitation method. Platinum master software was used for spots identification. Protein revealed that total 9193 protein spots with the pH range 4 - 7 and 23 - 312 kDa range recorded. Out of 9193 spots, maximum 3413 spots were found in pH range 6 - 7 in groundnut samples. Proteomic analysis reveals the translational products of gene expression of plant during flowering stage. Our analysis of proteome data provided useful information about the mechanism controlling various flower developmental stages. Out of these spots apart from differentially expressed spots covers large intensity and based on these many spots up and down regulated at bud, flower and peg stages of groundnut. This proteome analysis is first time reported at flower development stage in groundnut.


ASSESSMENT OF BACTERIAL DIVERSITY AT DIFFERENT LOCATIONS OF JUNAGADH (GUJARAT, INDIA)
Tank Arjun Arvindbhai

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
tank_arjun@yahoo.com

The varying climatic, geographical and social factors prevalent in India are ideally suited for the growth of many pathogenic organisms. The presence of aeroallergens can be of great impact in humans as they cause severe allergic reactions and they consist of bacteria, fungal spores, organic dust or pollen grains. A study of air micro flora was conducted in order to assessment of the bacterial contamination present in different location of Junagadh city like GIDC area, civil hospital, bus station, dam and forest area. Bacterial species were dominant in industrial areas compared with forest areas and hospital respectively. Visible difference in the colonies of bacteria in different season was estimated. The numbers of bacteria in winter season are higher than monsoon season. In the present study, 25 bacterial isolates were reported. Bacteria are known to be potential aeroallergen and could be a health hazard to all people travelling regularly in these areas.


MOSSES FOR MONITORING AIR POLLUTION
Galani Bansi R.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
galanibansi3@gmail.com

Mosses are small flowerless plans that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady location. Mosses are especially well suited as bio - indicators for airborne contaminant';s as they have no root and a very high surface to mass ratio. Eva Decker, of the university faculty of biology, explained: "we use moss, because, by mass, it has a huge surface area. You can grow a new plant and using these spores we started to cultivate new plant in the laboratory."Monitoring the levels of nitrogen and sulphur oxides, as well as airborne heavy metals like cadmium, lead and nickel, is hard to achieve with existing technologies as they are either imprecise or very expensive. The moss plant are transferred to air permeable bags, and then moved to monitoring stations at a variety of different European location where they absorb pollutants from the air. Carlos Brais Carballeira Brana, from the faculty of biology, at the University of Santiago de Compostela, spain said: "three different sample are exposed for three weeks in order to accumulate all the pollutants in area, in this case from passing cars or industrial plant, but primary itll be general road traffic". This approach, combining molecular biology and material sciences with ecology and bionics, could be, in the future, extended to other critical environment contexts.


ASSESMENT OF FUNGAL DIVERSITY AT DIFFERENT LOCATIONS OF JUNAGADH (GUJARAT, INDIA)
Jobanputra Prakruti Jitendrabhai

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
jobanputraprakruti@gmail.com

The varying climatic, geographical and social factors prevalent in India are ideally suited for the growth of many pathogenic organisms. The presence of aeroallergens can be of great impact in humans as they cause severe allergic reactions and they consist of bacteria, fungal spores, organic dust or pollen grains. A study of air micro flora was conducted in order to assessment of the fungal contamination present in different location of Junagadh city like GIDC area, civil hospital, bus station, dam and forest area. Fungal species were dominant in industrial areas compared with forest areas and hospital respectively. Visible difference in the colonies of fungi in different season was estimated. The numbers of fungi in winter are higher than monsoon season. In the present study, 21 fungal isolates were reported. Fungal spores are known to be potential aeroallergen and could be a health hazard to all people travelling regularly in these areas.


BIODIESEL FROM WASTE COOKING OIL
Kalola Krishna J.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
krishhkalola@gmail.com

Recycle waste cooking oil is harmful to health, but it is not environmental friendly to disposed used cooking oil just like that. The best solution is to used it for industrial purposes, namely to reproduce into biodiesel. High variation in global price of petroleum crude oil has an inspacious impact on national economy of crude oil dependent country like India. As per survey, petroleum crude oil consumption in India was 3.182 million barrels/day in 2010 and oil consumption is growing fast. The ecofriendly way to create trade for the petroleum based fuel like diesel is the current undertaking for green technologist. Waste cooking oil trying to help decrease the price of biodiesel. Trans esterification reaction of frying oil generally known as waste cooking oil with alcohol (methanol or ethanol or both) in presence of various different catalysts to synthesis trans esterified product i.e. biodiesel is the future need as the alternative energy source because of depletion of fossil fuel.The advantage is that it has significantly help to preserve environment and as well as conversion of waste to useful energy.


AUTOPHAGY: MECHANISM OF CELLS & TISSUES RENOVATION
Mori Ruti A.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
vrutimori15@gamil.com

Autophagy is a normal physiological process in the body that deals with destruction of cells in the body. It maintains homeostasis or normal functioning by protein degradation and turnover of the destroyed cell organelles for new cell formation. Autophagy divided into the three types of mechanisms by which intracellular materials are delivered into lysosome for degradation is microautophagy, chaperon mediated autophagy and macroautophagy. Macroautophagy involves the formation of subcellular double - membrane - bound structures called autophagosomes,that contain degradable contents of cytoplasm materials and deliver them into lysosomes for breakdown by lysosomal enzymes. The molecular mechanism of autophagy involves several conserved Atg proteins. Autophagy has role in cancer, acting as both a tumor suppressor by preventing the accumulation of damaged proteins and organelles and as a mechanism of cell survival that can promote the growth of established tumors. Tumor cells activate autophagy in response to cellular stress and increased metabolic demands related to rapid cell proliferation. Targeting autophagy in cancer will provide new opportunities for drug development, because more potent and specific inhibitors of autophagy are needed.


PLANT GROWTH PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITY INHERITED BY SEED ENDOPHYTES IN GROUNDNUT
Odedra Priya Nalinbhai

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh

Although the importance of plant - associated microorganisms for plant growth and health was looking more interesting recently, especially seed endophytes and their role in plant growth promotion, but still mechanism is understand. This kind of association is may be beneficial or harmful for the plant seed germination and growth stages. Moreover, bacterial endophytes can be selectively transmitted through seeds to the next generation without generating any morphological, physiological changes and disease symptom. Several plant growth promoting trait like indole acetic acid, phosphate solubilisation, Zinc solubilisation, HCN production, various enzyme activity and antagonistic activity of seed endophytes are directly or indirectly affect on plant growth promotion Total 34 seed endophytes were isolated from ground nuts, peas, soyabean, pigeon pea, field beans and maize. Out of 34 endophytes 20 isolates were Gram positive, 14 isolates Gram negative, 22 motile and 12 non - motile. In the case of phosphate solubilisation total 20 gives phosphate solubilisation, from that ME - 1 and GE - 15 gives best phosphate solubilisation. There were 18 isolates gives zinc solubilisation in which GE - 15, SE - 6 gives best solubilisation activity. All the 34 seed endophytes have not ability to produce HCN. All the isolates were screen against three fungal pathogen i.e. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, scleroltium rolfsii. Bacterial strain GE - 4, GE - 11, FE - 2, PE - 6, PE - 8 and SE - 1 showed antifungal activity against all fungal pathogen.


NENOFIBER USE TO REPAIR BRAIN DAMAGE
Pragna Sanghani

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
pragnasanghani711@gmail.com

Nanotechnology is often associated with materials fabrication, microelectronics, and microfluidics. Until now, the use of nanotechnology and molecular self assembly in biomedicine to repair injured brain structures has not been explored. To achieve axonal regeneration after injury in the CNS, several formidable barriers must be overcome, such as scar tissue formation after tissue injury, gaps in nervous tissue formed during phagocytosis of dying cells after injury, and the failure of many adult neurons to initiate axonal extension. Traumatic/surgical brain injury can initiate a cascade of pathological changes that result, in the long run, in severe damage of brain parenchyma and encephalopathy. Excessive scarring can also interfere with brain function and the glial scar formed may hamper the restoration of damaged brain neural pathways. Using the mammalian visual system as a model, we report that a designed self - assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold creates a permissive environment for axons not only to regenerate through the site of an acute injury but also to knit the brain tissue together. The peptide nanofiber scaffold not only represents a previously undiscovered nano biomedical technology for tissue repair and restoration but also raises the possibility of effective treatment of CNS and other tissue or organ trauma, CNS regeneration tissue repair nanomedicine.


KLOTHO: THE AGEING - SUPPRESSOR GENE
Karia Srushti Bipinbhai

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
srutikaria@gmail.com

Klotho was originally discovered as an anti - aging factor, Availability of an adequate amount Of Klotho is essential or FGF23 to exert its phosphaturic effects in the kidney. In the presence of Klotho, FGF23 activates downstream signaling components that influence the homeostasis of phosphate, whereas in the absence of this membrane protein. In various acquired and genetic human diseases, dysregulation of FGF23 and Klotho is associated with vascular and skeletal anomalies owing to altered phosphate turnover. Three major functions have been proposed, a hormonal function of soluble Klotho, an enzymatic function as glycosidase, and the function as an obligatory co - receptor for FGF23 signaling. How the endocrine effects of bone - derived FGF23, in coordination with Klotho, can regulate systemic phosphate homeostasis, and how an inadequate balance of these molecules can lead to complications that are caused by abnormal mineral ion metabolism.During recent years, major new functions of FGF23 and Klotho have been discovered in these organ systems. Based on these novel findings, FGF23 has emerged as a pleiotropic endocrine and autoparacrine factor influencing not only mineral metabolism but also cardiovascular function.


ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOFERTILIZATION PROPERTIES OF HALOPHILES FROM SALINE SOIL SAMPLE.
Vadher Aasha B.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh

Commercial chemical fertilizers causes environment pollution and gradually reduces the fertility of soil.Biofertilizers is one of the best ecofriendly tools in Agriculture. So that biofertilizers which contain useful microbial diversity and supports the plant growth and do not cause soil and water pollution. Biofertilizers also impact on crop production as they contains microorganisms which promote the adequate supply of nutrients to the host plants and ensure their proper development of growth with regulated physiology. Living microorganisms with specific functional properties are used for preparation of biofertilizers. It is essential component of organic farming and play vital role in maintaining long term soil fertility and sustainability. Here, the Nitrogen fixers and Phosphate solubilizing bacteria from saline soil of farms where salt concentration is higher are used. Isolation of bacteria carried out by standard specific methods then examine their properties like IAA production, Nitrogen fixation activity, Phosphate solubilizing activity, Pesticide tolerance activity, Siderophore production activity and Ammonia production activity. Potential isolated microorganisms will used for biofertilizer preparation with suitable carriers and apply on field try.


GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD
Meghnathi Ravi M.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
meghnathiravi183@gmail.com

In the context of the GM food regulations crop improvement via transgenic technology is a new stage of introducing novel food which supercedes.over the conventional breeding it was analysed that worlds hunger malnutrition problems environmental pollution and phytoremendaition in agriculture are the challenges for scientist as well as governments those can be combated by application of genetic engineering in crops. Genetically modified crops plants results from modification in the genetic make - up of microorganisms, plants and animals using recombinant DNA technology to improve the nutritional requirement increased production and medical properties. In many insatances, these modification processes represent faster , more efficient mecganisms for achieving changes thantreditional breeding.Howeeever,a wide variety of modification are possible through genetic manipulation & the potention for the introduction of toxic compounds , unexpected secondary effects and changes in nutritional and toxicological characteristics may give to safety concernsabout GM crops.Thus,genetically of GM food explores new vistas for future food requirement nut the assessment of policy regarding. Environmental risks are also to be concerned.


ELECTROPHORETIC ANALYSIS OF COW MEAT ADULTERATION WITH OTHER SPECIES
Bansari Vaghasiya1, Kapil Kumar2, Rakesh Rawal3

Department of Biochemistry and Forensic Science, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad
patelbansari2212@gmail.com

This study describes the use of electrophoresis method to distinguish meat samples Electrophoresis is particularly convenient because if small fragment of DNA formed during the processing of the raw meat it can be amplified and identified. Test mixtures containing meat samples of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), Cow (Bos taurus), Dog (Canis lupus), Goat (Capra hircus), Hen (Gallus gallus), Ox (Bos taurus), Sheep (Ovis aries). By using seven primers of the tested samples in appropriate ratios, species - specific DNA fragments could be identified by Agarose Gel Electrophoresis. Examination of the bands was observed on the basis of the U.V. illuminator, magnification, light exposure and brightness according to the DNA quality and quantity. The separation suggested that the adulteration can be detected according to the primers and samples which are adulterated.


NANOPESTICIDE - ALTERNATIVE OF CHEMICAL PESTICIDE USED IN CHILI LEAF CURL VIRAL DISEASE
Kishan H. Sodha, Harsukh Gajera, Vasantba Jadeja and Baljibhai Golakiya

Bioscience Department, Saurashtra University, Rajkot - 360005
kishandh52@gmail.com

Chili Leaf Curl viral disease is caused by chili leaf curl virus (chlcv) which are transferred by the insect vector Bemisia tabaci (Whitefly). Essential oil of Palmrosa is extracted by hydrodistilation method. Approximately 2.10 ml of essential oil is extracted from 1.5 Kg of Plant Material. Essential oil of Palmrosa has antiviral, antimicrobial and repellent activity against these types of insect vector. Phytochemical analysis of Palmrosa Essential oil shows different compounds which have antiviral, antimicrobial and insect repellent activity. Major compounds identified are GERANIOL (47.82%), LINALOOL (12.09%), and CARYOPHYLLENE (11.20%) which have good antiviral activity. There are many other compounds identified which have good antimicrobial activity. Silver nanoparticles and chitosan nanoparticles have also antiviral and antimicrobial activity. Silver nanoparticles are synthesized by chemical reduction method which has size of 20.07 nm. Essential oil of Palmrosa is incorporated with these silver nanoparticles which gives size of 73.40 nm. Chitosan nanoparticles have size of 60.60 nm. Essential oil of Palmrosa is incorporated with these Chitosan nanoparticles which gives size of 198.8 nm. Scanning Electron Micrograph shows size as well as morphology of synthesized nanoparticles. Spraying of these formulation shows good result by cure the disease and make plants healthy.


FORMULATION OF PROBIOTIC DARK CHOCOLATE FROM DIFFERENT SAMPLES.
Pandya Dipali V. & Pathak Hiral B.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
dashupandya@gmail.com & pathakhiral2401@gmail.com

Probiotics are live nonpathogenic microorganisms administered to improve microbial balance, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. They consist of lactic acid bacteria,, and are regulated as dietary supplements and foods. Probiotics exert their beneficial effects through various mechanisms, including lowering intestinal pH, decreasing colonization and invasion by pathogenic organisms, and modifying the host immune response. The strongest evidence for the clinical effectiveness of probiotics has been in the treatment of acute diarrhea, most commonly due to rotavirus. They should be used cautiously in patients who are critically ill. Probiotic product is more beneficial for the human host because it give some kind of resistance to pathogenic organism. Probiotic chocolate may actually be superior to other forms of probiotic foods. In fact, chocolate helps the probiotics survive digestion and exposure to stomach acids, ensuring that the probiotics can successfully reach the lower intestines. This means that consuming probiotic chocolate guarantees that body will receive just about all of the probiotics initially present before eating. Another key benefit for choosing probiotic chocolate is that probiotics promote a stronger immune system and keep our intestines balanced.


INHALABLE FORM OF MESSENGER RNA
Bhalodiya Priya K. & Kchhot Avani H.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
priya.bhalodia33@gmail.com & avanikachhot70@gmail.com

Non - invasive aerosol inhalation is an established method of drug delivery to the lung, and remains a desirable route for nucleic - acid - based therapeutics. In vitro transcribed (IVT) mRNA has broad therapeutic applicability as it permits temporal and dose - dependent control of encoded protein expression. Inhaled delivery of IVT - mRNA has not yet been demonstrated and requires development of safe and effective materials. Hyper branched poly beta amino esters (hPBAEs) are synthesized to enable nan formulation of stable and concentrated polyplexes suitable for inhalation. This strategy achieves uniform distribution of luciferase mRNA throughout all five lobes of the lung and produces luciferase protein 24 h after inhalation of hPBAE polyplexes. Importantly, delivery is localized to the lung, and no luminescence is observed in other tissues. Inhaled hPBAE - mRNA generates consistent protein production in the lung, without local or systemic toxicity. This indicate that nebulized delivery of IVT - mRNA facilitated by hPBAE vectors may provide a clinically relevant delivery system to lung epithelium.


IRON IS NEUROTOXIC IN RETINAL DETACHMENT
Goswami Fena R. & Bhut Nidhi H.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
fenagoswami313126@gmail.com & nidhibhut1998@gmail.com

In retinal detachment (RD), photoreceptor death and permanent vision loss are caused by neurosensory retina separating from the retinal pigment epithelium because of subretinal fluid (SRF), and successful surgical reattachment is not predictive of total visual recovery. As retinal iron overload exacerbates cell death in retinal diseases, we assessed iron as a predictive marker and therapeutic target for RD. In the vitreous and SRF from patients with RD, we measured increased iron and transferrin (TF) saturation that is correlated with poor visual recovery. In ex vivo and in vivo RD models, iron induces immediate necrosis and delayed apoptosis. We demonstrate that TF decreases both apoptosis and necroptosis induced by RD, and using RNA sequencing, pathways mediating the neuroprotective effects of TF are identified. Since toxic iron accumulates in RD, we propose TF supplementation as an adjunctive therapy to surgery for improving the visual outcomes of patients with RD.we evaluated the iron and TF status in ocular fluids from patients with RRD and correlated those parameters to visual acuity recovery and duration of RRD. Retinal explants are a common tool used for RD studies, recapitulating pathological processes found in the detached retina.


FOOD SAFETY
Chavda Hiral P. & Parmar Priyanka V.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
chavdahiral1810@gmail.com & piyuparmar666@gmail.com

Food safety is a general term referred to reduce the risk of individuals becoming sick from foodborne illness through managed handling, preparation and storage of food. This includes a number of routine that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. Each and every food establishment uses processes and sells food in different ways. During food preparation before wash your hands and clean and sanitize all surfaces. Protect kitchen areas and food from insect's pests and other animal. While cooking safe water and raw materials are been used. Than separate chicken and other foods in the fridge and during preparation, so raw chicken juices do not come in contact with other foods. Store food in containers to avoid contact between raw and prepared foods. Do not store food at room temperature for long time. The thickest part of the meat should reach 75 degrees Celsius on a food thermometer. Wash all fruits and vegetables with clean water and do not use food beyond its expiration date. Cooked food at more than 140 f before to serving. Boil soups and stews to make sure that they have reached 158 f. bacteria is killed at 100 degrees Celsius and inactive at - 18 degrees Celsius. Food cannot stay in the temperature danger zone for more than 4 hours. All food must be labeled to prevent food borne illness.


MARBURG VIRUS DISEASE AND CLINICAL ASPECTS.
Aastha G. Gondaliya

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
Aastha.gondaliya4@gmail.com

Marburg virus belongs to the genus Marburgvirus in the family Filoviridae and causes a severe hemorrhagic fever, known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF), in both humans and nonhuman primates. Similar to the more widely known Ebola hemorrhagic fever, MHF is characterized by systemic viral replication, immunosuppression and abnormal inflammatory responses. Similar to the more widely known Ebola hemorrhagic fever, MHF is characterized bysystemic viral replication, immunosuppression and abnormal inflammatory responses. These pathological features of the disease contribute to a number of systemic dysfunctions including hemorrhages, edema, coagulation abnormalities and, ultimately, multiorgan failure and shock, often resulting in death. A detailed understanding of the pathological processes that lead to this devastating disease remains elusive, a fact that contributes to the lack of licensed vaccines or effective therapeutics. This poster reviews the clinical aspects of MHF and discuss the pathogenesis and possible options for diagnosis, treatment and prevention.


ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AMYLASE PRODUCING BACTERIA FROM SALINE SOIL SAMPLE, VERAVAL, GUJARAT., INDIA
Gadhiya Dipak1 & Chavada Nikul2

1Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
2Shree Mahila Arts and Science College - Simar(Kidivav)
dipak.gadhiya9@gmail.com & nikulfriens8@gmail.com

Starch, a main component of our daily diet, is frequently found not only in food residues on dishes but also in food stains on clothes. Amylases are enzymes that break down starch or glycogen. Recent discoveries of starch degrading enzymes have led to increased application of amylases in various industrial processes Amylases [a - amylase, β - amylase and glucoamylase (GA)] are among the most important enzymes in present - day biotechnology in many biotechnological processes including starch degradation, detergent, foodstuff, pharmaceutical, textile, and paper manufacturing.Enzymes are thought of as natural bio catalysts that promotes specific chemical reactions. Most enzymes are produced by the fermentation of bio based materials. Microbial enzymes are most popular to those from each plants and animal sources because they are inexpensive to produce and their enzyme contents are more expected, convenient to handle and reliable.Enzymes are mainly performing in the conversion of macro molecules to body energy and new materials, also for growth, repair and cell maintenance. The source of enzymes is animal, plant and microorganisms; however, the industrial applications of commercial enzymes, microorganisms are the foremost vital source of assorted enzymes.In present study we collected saline soil sample from Adri village which near to sea cost Area, veraval we isolated best Nine Bacterial strain which produce good amaylase enzyme than we study their amylase Producing activity with Different Ph,Temprature and salt Concentration.


APPLICATIONS OF EXTREMOPHILES:
Jethwa Shreeja Kanubhai

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
jethwashreeja@gmail.com

Biotechnology has almost unlimited potential to change our lives in very exciting ways. Many of the chemical reactions that produce these products can be fully optimized by performing them at extremes of temperature (high temperature - thermophiles, low temperature - pshycrophiles), pressure (barophiles), salinity (halophiles), and pH (high ph - alkalophiles, low ph - acidophiles) low water concentration (xerophiles) for efficient and cost - effective outcomes. Fortunately, there are extremophiles that thrive in extreme environments found in nature and offer an excellent source of replacement enzymes in lieu of mesophilic ones currently used in these processes. Extremophiles are biotechnological interest, as they produce extremozymes, defined as enzymes that are functional under extreme conditions. Extremozymes are useful in industrial production procedures and research applications because of their ability to remain active under the severe conditions typically employed in these processes. The study of extremophiles provides an understanding of the physicochemical parameters defining life on earth and may provide insight into how life on earth originated. The postulations that extreme environmental conditions existed on primitive earth and that life arose in hot environments have led to the theory that extremophiles are vestige of primordial organisms and thus are models of ancients life.


ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GROUNDNUT (ARACHIS HYPOGEA) RHIZOSPHERIC BACTERIA FOR PLANT GROWTH PROMOTION.
Parmar Krishna

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
parmarkrishna105@gmail.com

Rhizosphere of a groundnut plant (Arachis hypogea) from farm explored for isolation of PGPR Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of beneficial microorganisms that colonize at plant rhizosphere, and induce plant growth by a wide variety of mechanisms. Over last couple of years, the use of PGPR is steadily increasing in modern agriculture as a possible alternative to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and other supplements. In the present study, we have screened out a group of microorganism from the rhizospheric soil of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) on the basis of their PGPs characteristics. PGPR and their various characteristics such as physical characterization, morphological test, gram staining, and negative staining; biochemical characterization viz indole acetic acid production test, sugar utilization test, catalase test, HCN production test, ammonium production test, phosphate solubilizing test, zink solubilizing test, and antifungal assay. A total of 24 isolates from the rhizosphere belonging to PGPR group show 12 protease activity, 12 phosphate solubilization, 20 organisms give oxidase positive, 13 isolates give indole acetic acid test positive. Out of 24 isolates 12 isolates were exhibited in - vitro plant growth promotion activities and indicated that these isolates may be exploited as bio - fertilizer and microbial inoculums for leguminous crops they enhance plant growth via diverse mechanism and offered attractive strategies to replace synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.


THALASSEMIA
Aardeshana Nidhi R. & Vadodariya Shreena H.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
shreenavadodariya12@gmail.com

Thalassemia is group of inherited hematologic disorder caused by defects in synthesis of one or more of hemoglobin chain. α - Thalassemia is caused by reduced or absent synthesis of α - globin chains & α - Thalassemia is caused by reduced or absent synthesis of β - globin chains. Imbalance of globin chain cause hemolysis & impair erythropoiesis. Thalassemia is major health problem, placing an immeasurable emotional, psychological & economic burden on millions of people around the world.


EXOPOLYSACCHARIDE PRODUCING BACTERIA
Vanpariya Vrunda R.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
vrvanpariya101@gmail.com

Exopolysaccharide (EPS) are biopolymers produced by the different organism. They have a two types of Exopolysaccharide homo polysaccharide and hetero polysaccharide. The EPSs generally consist of monosachharides and some non - carbohydrates substituents such as protein, nucleic acid, lipids, acetate, pyruvate, succinate, and phosphates. Polysachharides are widely distributed in nature and provide a means to store energy, provide protection and adhesion to surface, structural support and allow flexibility.organism were isolated from different sample like soil, curd, apple, tomato and waste water. To achieve the aim, samples were collected from junagadh market and sewage. Isolated microbes from various origins were selected based on their morphological characteristics. For the screening, various method such as YEM congores test, MRS test, Gram reaction test, Biofilm formation, motility test, MR/VP test, IAA test, carbohydrate test and citrate utilization test. From the experiment, it was found that many isolates have the production of Exopolysaccharide (EPS) which have unique properties such as antimicrobial activity, binding capacity for exoenzyme, bioflocculation, bioremediation, protection for predators and rheology. The application of EPS producing organism in various areas like food, taxtiles, cosmetics, pharmaceutical industries.


ASSESMENT OF MICROBIAL DIVERSITY AT DIFFERENT LOCATIONS OF JUNAGADH (GUJRAT, INDIA)
Thakar Darpan Sureshbhai & Jethva Nirav Rajendrabhai

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
niravjethva380@gmail.com & dpthakar0@gmail.com

The varying climatic, geographical and social factors prevalent in India are ideally suited for the growth of many pathogenic organisms. The presence of aeroallergens can be of great impact in humans as they cause severe allergic reactions and they consist of bacteria, fungal spores, organic dust or pollen grains. A study of air micro flora was conducted in order to assessment of the microbial contamination present in different location of Junagadh city like GIDC area, civil hospital, bus station, willingdon dam and forest area. Microbial species were dominant in industrial areas compared with forest areas and hospital respectively. Visible difference in the colonies of microbes in different season was estimated. The numbers of micro flora in winter are higher than monsoon season. In the present study, 21 fungal isolates and 25 bacterial isolates were reported. Fungal spores and bacteria are known to be potential aeroallergen and could be a health hazard to all people travelling regularly in these areas.


GENETIC MUTATION RESPONSIBLE FOR TUBERCULOSIS VULNERABILITY
Chapala Krisha A. & Maradiya Mansi G.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
krishachapala@gmail.com & Mansimaradiya28698@gmail.com

Hundreds of patients with autosomal recessive, complete IL - 12p40 or IL - 12Rβ1 deficiency have been diagnosed over the last 20 years. They typically suffer from invasive mycobacteriosis and, occasionally, from mucocutaneous candidiasis. Susceptibility to these infections is thought to be due to impairments of IL - 12-dependent IFN - γ immunity and IL - 23-dependent IL - 17A/IL - 17F immunity, respectively. We report here patients with autosomal recessive, complete IL - 12Rβ2 or IL - 23R deficiency, lacking responses to IL - 12 or IL - 23 only, all of whom, unexpectedly, display mycobacteriosis without candidiasis. We show that αβT, γδT, B, NK, ILC1, and ILC2 cells from healthy donors preferentially produce IFN - γ in response to IL - 12, whereas NKT cells and MAIT cells preferentially produce IFN - γ in response to IL - 23. We also show that the development of IFN - γ-producing CD4+ T cells, including, in particular, mycobacterium - specific TH1* cells (CD45RA - CCR6+), is dependent on both IL - 12 and IL - 23. Last, we show that IL12RB1, IL12RB2, and IL23R have similar frequencies of deleterious variants in the general population. The comparative rarity of symptomatic patients with IL - 12Rβ2 or IL - 23R deficiency, relative to IL - 12Rα1 deficiency, is, therefore, due to lower clinical penetrance. These experiments of nature show that human IL - 12 and IL - 23 are both required for optimal IFN - γ-dependent immunity to mycobacteria, both individually and much more so cooperatively.


MAMMALIAN AUTOPHAGY
Gadhvi Megha S. & Mahida Anila Y.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
msgadhvi1912@gmail.com, anilamahidaaa@gmail.com

Autophagy is an ancient pathway in which subcellular membranes undergo dynamic morphological change that leads to the degradation of cellular proteins and cytoplasmic organells within the lysosome or vacuole. autophagy has a much broader role in biology, including organelle remodelling, protein and organelle quality control, prevention of genotoxic stress, tumor suppression, pathogen elimination, regulation of immunity and inflammation, maternal DNA inheritance, metabolism, and cellular survival. This mechanism is inducing under various conditions of cellular stress, which protect cell and help in survival when nutrient is depleted and respond to various cytotoxic damage. Autophagy is controlled by a gene and cascade of proteins and protein complexes, each regulating a distinct stage of autophagosome initiation and formation. several vertebrate genes were cloned that shared a high degree of sequence homology with essential yeast autophagy genes, including human ATG5, human ATG12. Disrupted autophagy has been linked to Parkinson's disease, type 2 diabetes and other disorders that appear in the elderly. Mutations in autophagy genes can cause genetic disease. Disturbances in the autophagic machinery have also been linked to cancer. Intense research is now ongoing to develop drugs that can target autophagy in various diseases.


ISOLATION, ENUMERATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF OIL DEGRADING MICROORGANISMS
Bhut Happy B.1, Rajpara Nidhi U.1, Ms. Milli R. Gandhi.2

1Department of Life Science, BKNM University, Junagadh, 2C.C.S.I.T - Junagadh
tinapatel532@gmail.com

One of the major environmental problems today is oil contamination over the land as well as water surface. The present study focused on the isolation, enumeration and characterization of oil degrading microbes from oil contaminated sites. The oil spillage caused by various natural calamities and human activities which is the main environmental pollutants now a days. Oil spillage may be caused by natural disasters like earthquakes in the sea surface or due to accidental leaks during exploration, refining, storage and transportation. Bioremediation is the promising technology for the treatment of these contaminated sites since it is cost effective and will lead to complete mineralization. The present study focused on the eco friendly solution of oil contaminated environment. So, oil degrading bacteria were isolated from different soil samples of different location and the isolates were grown on Bushnell Haas medium and King's B agar medium followed by different biochemical tests. Screened and isolated oil degrading bacteria were able to degrade different concentration of oil even 10% of crude oil which is approx 70 - 75% degraded within 5 - 6 days.
Keywords: Oil degrading bacteria, Oil spilling and Bioremediation.


STORAGE STUDY OF SEER FISH AND KARIKADI SHRIMP AND THEIR MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
Vachhani Shreya N.1 , Dr. Hiral Kriplani2

1Department of Life Science, BKNM University, JUNAGADH
vachhani.shreya123@gmail.com

Seafoods are high on list of foods associated with outbreak of foodborne disease. Fish and Shrimp are the most consumed seafoods by world population. So, it is essential to analyze these seafoods quality before consumption periodically. In a raw fish and shrimp, spoilage occurs mainly due to enzymatic, microbial and chemical action. Among these, spoilage due to bacteria gains greater concern as a health hazard. Thus, during the current survey study, the focus was majorly on the microbiological analysis of the raw fish and shrimps, collected from the local fish market of Veraval region. Microbiological analysis includes total viable count of the bacteria, fecal contamination, total coliforms and the effect of storage on these foods due to the fact that majority vendors store them at low temperature before they sell them to the market. Therefore, in the current study, different storage times and temperature were included as follows: Three different temperatures were considered from the low to room temperature i.e. 0 - 4 ℃” 2 - 8°C and room temperature while storage times includes 0day, 2nd day, 4thday and 6th day. Microbiological analysis was carried out by measuring the parameters like aerobic plate count and total coliforms presence. Besides that, the confirmatory test for the faecal coliforms was also performed for the evaluation of faecal contamination. It was found that during storage at room temperature, sample's aerobic plate count and total faecal coliforms increased drastically in compare to 8° C and 4° C. It can also be concluded from the results that storage conditions with low temperature retains food quality at the lowest but preferably it should be consumed fresh because during storage also, the aerobic plate count and total coliforms count could alter, might lead to food spoilage upon long term storage.
Keywords: Coliforms, aerobic plate count, microbiological analysis of seafoods.


CISGENESIS AND INTRAGENESIS AS NEW STRATEGIES FOR CROP IMPROVEMENT
Delvadiya I. R.1 and Balat J. R.2

1.2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, 362001, Gujarat
*indrajaydelvadiya@gmail.com

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) could be the answer for many relevant problems affecting crops. However, improving crops through GMO is also often associated with safety concerns, environmental risks and health issues due to the presence of foreign DNA. These limitations have prompted the development of alternative technologies. Recently, as an alternative way to transgenesis, two different approaches, cisgenesis and intragenesis were developed. In cisgenesis, the unchanged, contiguous and naturally occurring genome fragment containing the gene of interest along with its own introns and regulatory sequences are fragmented as such, and transferred into the host genome from crossable donor plant. On the other hand, intragenesis refers to GMOs where the introduced intragene also originates from the same species or a crossable species, but in contrast to cisgenes, intragenes are hybrid genes, which can have genetic elements from different genes and loci.


SPHEROIDS; THREE DIMENSIONAL CULTURE (3D) MODEL IN HUMAN CANCER RESEARCH
Maitri Nandasana, Priya Mori and Sejal Shah*

Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, School of Science, RK University, Rajkot
sejal.shah@rku.ac.in

Normally the cells divide in the pattern of mitosis or meiosis according to their role and type of germination. The error in the division pattern leads to the abundant and uncontrolled growth of cells commonly known as cancer. The cells in human body grows in the organized 3 - D matrix surrounded by the other cells. The experiments performed earlier on the cells were basically 2 - D based so, various interactions such as cell differentiation, apoptosis, proliferation or invasion were not known. Therefore, 3 - D culture technique came into existence. The spherical cell aggregates called spheroids which are formed from the tumor cells are grown in the invitro conditions. Spheroids are mimic of the original tumor cells along with their microenvironment. The similarities between original tumor and the spheroids includes volume growth kinetics and cellular heterogeneity. Spheroids are used for the studies of immunological interactions and anticancer drug effects. Various hypothesis as well as the reason of regeneration of tumor after chemotherapy can be solved using spheroid. It may fill the gap between invitro and invivo tumour studies. Thus, spheroids are the key models to reach the roots of cancer and to solve unknown problems in the future in the field of tumor biology.


COMBINE METABOLOMICS AND PROTEOMICS APPROACH TO UNDERSTAND PLANT BIOTIC STRESS RESISTANCE
Bavisa R. V.1, Ginoya A. V.2

1Department of Agril. Entomology, 2Department of seed science and technology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, 362001, Gujarat
*bavisarupa27@gmail.com

Plants are continuously exposed to various environmental stresses and use qualitative and quantitative resistance to combat pathogen attack (biotic stress). Recent advances in metabolomic and proteomic technologies offer opportunities to overcome the obstacle of polygenic inheritance and identify candidate genes for use in plant breeding, thus improving the global food security. Genomics and transcriptomics enable identification of candidate gene, its function and expression. But understanding the mechanism by which gene confers resistance to biotic stress is very important prerequisite in the field of functional genomics and system biology. Whereas, integrated metabolo - proteomics approach not only decipher plant mechanism to pathogen stress resistance, but also helps to identify the candidate or resistance related genes due to availability of vast array of bioinformatic tools and database. The application of metabolomic and proteomic tools to discover resistance genes and to decipher functions of resistance genes is summarized into ten major steps: Selection of plant - pathogen systems, environment influencing inoculation and infection, assessment of quantitative resistance in plants against pathogen stress, sample collection for biochemical analysis, extraction and sample preparation for biochemical analysis, mass spectrometry - based metabolomics and proteomics, mass spectral output processing and compound annotation, information extraction - the discovery of resistant related (RR) metabolites, proteins and genes, new knowledge generation - mechanisms of resistance in plants to biotic stress and knowledge application and technology transfer. Thus candidate genes, RR genes and metabolites identified can be used in marker - assisted breeding employing gene specific DNA markers.


ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA FROM THE SALINE SOIL OF KODINAR
Devi Chhatrodiya, Dr. Dushyant Dudhagara*

Department of Life Sciences, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University, Junagadh - 362263
chhatrodiyadevi@gmail.com

Nowadays the increasing the use of chemical fertilizer like ammonium nitrate as source of nitrogen in plant. The excessive use of chemical fertilizer, which may reduce the soil fertility. Instead of chemical fertilize, certain Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) play important role in nitrogen fixation process in the plant. Thus, PGPR helpful in nitrogen fixation by various bacteria. PGPR have ability to colonize in the plant roots, stimulate the plant growth, and increase plant health and crop productivity. Various PGPR genera like Azospirillum, Azotobacter, pseudomonas, Bacillus, Clostridium, Rhizobium, and Flavobacterium are responsible for up taking of nutrients. Amongst them, Azotobacter is predominated microbes and having certain different feature in stimulating the plant growth. The present study demonstrated the isolation and characterization of PGPR organism especially Azotobacter. Selective media such as yeast extract mannitol (YEM) broth was used for the isolation of Azotobacter. The formation of pellicle on the surface of YEM broth which indicating the growth of organism. A total 11 morphological distinct colonies were grow on the YEM agar. Amongst them, three colonies were represents the characteristics of Azotobacter and further conformed by Grams reaction and capsule staining. Furthermore, Plant growth promoting field study and identification of isolates by polyphasic approaches is in under progress. The study would be helpful for the increasing the soil fertility and plant productivity using the PGPR especially by Azotobacter stain.


ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM HUMAN SCALP AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ANTI - DANDRUFF SHAMPOOS AND NATURAL SOURCES
Dhara Dobariya1, Dr.Mehul P. Dave1

1Dept. Of Life Sciences, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University, Junagadh.
dhdo1997@gmail.com

The human scalp provides a favorable environment for the growth of number of microbes. Fungi is known as causative factor of a mild seborrheic dermatitis. Sample was collected from the scalp of the individual with dandruff. Isolates were obtained from various anti - dandruff shampoos and natural sources. In subsequent study anti - dandruff activity of shampoo - 3 showed higher inhibitory activities, as compared to other shampoos and zone of inhibition observed was 3cm (diameter). Extract of Citrus lemon had higher inhibitory activity as compared to other sources and zone of inhibition observed was 3.4cm (diameter).


ASSESSMENT OF AMYLASE PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY OF HALOPHILIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM BEDI COASTAL REGION OF GUJARAT
Leesa Mesvaniya1, Jinal Sakhiya1, Mrs.Hemal Ram2, Dr.Mehul p. Dave

1Department of life sciences, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University, Junagadh
2T.N.Rao college, Rajkot

Halophiles are salt - loving organisms that inhabit hypersaline environments. They have metabolic potentials to balance the osmotic pressure of the environment and resist the denaturing effects of salts. In the present study saline soil and sea water samples were collected from Bedi area of Jamnagar region. Halophiles having salt tolerance upto 15 % were isolated from the collected samples using media incorporated with excess concentrations of NaCl. Halophiles are perceived as an excellent source of novel enzymes possessing inherent ability to function under saline and hypersaline environment conditions. Isolates where further screened for the production of extremophilic protease and amylase. Amylase activity was determined to screen the best isolate among all. The intended production of enzyme by the isolated organisms is based on the fact that it is among the most commercially successful biotechnological product.


ISOLATION, SPECIATION AND ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CANDIDA
Shraddha Savaliya

shraddhasavaliya10@gmail.com

Candida species are responsible for various clinical infections ranging from mucocutaneous infection to life threatening invasive diseases along with increased resistance to antifungal drugs has made a serious concern. Resistance to antifungal agents has increased during the last decade. Thus, identification of Candida up to species level and its antifungal susceptibility testing has a paramount significance in the management of Candidal infections. The aim of the study was to speciate Candida species and to determine antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida species to antifungal agents.


NANOTECHNOLOGY IN EDIBLE COATING; A NEW STRATEGY FOR POST HARVESTING TREATMENT OF FOOD
Vasudev Surya, Pranav Pandya, BhavikaTurakhia, Sejal Shah*

Department of Microbiology, School of Science, RK University, Rajkot - 360020, Gujarat
sejal.shah@rku.ac.in

Food safety is essential for human health, from planting to consumption there are many opportunities for bacteria, virus and parasites to contaminate food and food products. Nanotechnology can bring the new opportunities for the food packaging and its post - harvesting handling, nanoparticles can increase the shelf life of the fruits, vegetables and other food products and it can also decrease the food spoilage and retard the shortage of food. Fruits and vegetable coated/cover with nanoparticles can warn the consumers about safety of the food products or fruits, i.e. by replacing plastic packaging of food with edible packing. The current major focus of food packaging with the help of nanotechnology is nanoparticles having high antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Some food products like bread will spoil in some hour without packaging after baking so, we can use nanoparticles. For coating of nanoparticles several methods can be utilized like LBL techniques. Nanoparticle coating can reduce gas diffusion and inhibit the growth of microbes. The risk of nanoparticles accumulation in body is also necessary to be known along with the virtues of nanotechnology in food safety.


SCIENTISTS LEARN HOW COMMON VIRUS REACTIVATES AFTER TRANSPLANTATION (CYTOMEGALOVIRUS)
Brijal S. Patel

B.N. Patel Institute of Paramedical and Science, Anand.
brijalpatel112@gmail.com

CMV - Cytomegalovirus, a type of herpes virus, infects at least half of adults by age 40. The virus can cause life - threatening complications such as pneumonia, hepatitis and gastroenteritis and has plagued allogenic transplant patients for decades. CMV can also cause serious complications such as hearing difficulties and mental retardation in affected infants. A new study in science challenges long - held theories of why a common virus cytomegalovirus, or CMV - can reactive and become a life - threatening infection in people with a compromised immune system, including blood marrow transplantation. DR. Geoffrey Hill and MARIAPIA A. Degli - Esposti developed mouse model and could pave the way for cheaper, safer therapies to protect patients from CMV. Their study shows for the first time that antibodies can play a dominant role in controlling reaction. Previous research on CMV reactivation has focused on T - cells, but T - cells are not more effective to prevent the CMV. Hill and his research team found that strain - specific antibodies made from B cells are responsible for keeping CMV suppressed in mice, without the need for any other immune cells. A future therapy could work by collecting the CMV - thwarting antibodies from patients who have been exposed to the virus and who are undergoing bone marrow transplant. The antibodies would be purified and multiplied in the lab, then returned to the patient after transplant. Hill and MARIAPIA Degli - Espisti looked into different strains of the virus, since CMV exist in many related but differing form and can change over the course of infection. They used eight different strains of CMV and found mice given the antibody from the same strain of the virus that they were exposed to previously were protected completely from CMV coming back.


"ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SPORE FORMING POTASSIUM SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA FROM RHIZOSPHERIC SOIL"
Sangeeta Jadav1*, Kuldip Pithiya1

1Department of genetics and plant breeding, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh 362001, Gujarat *sangeetavjadav@gmail.com

Potassium is seventh most common element in the earth crust. India ranks fourth after USA, China and Brazil as far as the total consumption of K - fertilizers in the world is concerned. There is no reserve of K - bearing minerals in India for production of commercial K - fertilizers and the whole consumption of K - fertilizers are imported in the form of muriate of potash and sulphate of potash which leads to huge amount of foreign exchange. Mineral potassium solubilization by microbes which enhances crop growth and yield when applied with a cheaper source of rock potassium may be agronomically more useful and environmentally more feasible than soluble K. Aim of this investigation is isolate thermophilic bacterias which solubilized the insoluble K. Fifty samples of Plant rhizosphere were collected randomly from different locations from road site of GIDC Sachin, different Ceramic Industry, Kamrej , Gujarat and total six isolates were obtained. For isolation serial dilutions of soil samples (up to 10 - 4) were made in 9.0ml sterilized NaCl Saline and give heat treatment at 80°C for 10 minutes for selection of spore forming microorganism and screen rhizobacterial isolates for potassium solubilization using modified Aleksandrov medium plates containing mica and Methyl Red dye. Isolates KMB101.1, KMB82.2.1 and KMB84.1 are gives positive and significant results for primary screening for PGPR activities like IAA production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, N2 fixation, protease production, cellulase production, and also gives potential result for secondary screening like IAA production, Phosphate solubilisation and protease production. So this isolate can be utilized as a biofertilizer for field level but further molecular and field level analysis is required.


AUTOPHAGY: A REVOLUTIONARY MECHANISM
Barad Purvangi R.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
purvangibarad12842@gmail.com

Autophagy is an ancient intracellular degradation system that delivers cytoplasmic constituents to the lysosome. The recent progress about autophagy demonstrates that the autophagy plays physiological & pathophysiological important roles, like protein & organelle quality control, genotoxic stress, tumour suppression, pathogen elimination, regulation of immunity & inflammation and cellular survival. It may performed by several steps like induction, cargo selection, nucleation, expansion, retrieval. This system induced on the stress or starvation condition, by m - TOR protein. Several autophagy related genes (ATG) are responsible for production of autophagy related protein (Atg) which regulates & perform every stage of autophagy. Genetic study of autophagy was done in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Yoshinori Oshumi. On October 3, 2016 he got Nobel Prize for "discoveries of the mechanism for autophagy". It is the most ancient consensus pathway which present in every eukaryotes from unicellular yeast to multicellular mammals. Now a days persons are thinking that how to increase autophagy to prevent any crucial diseases like cancer.


COMPOSTING
Board Dipali R.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
bodardipu58891@gmail.com

Composting is the manipulation of a biological process, decomposition, raw organic materials such as manure, leaves, grass clippings, food wastes, and municipal bio solids are converted to stable soil - like humic substances. Composting is an ancient technology undertaken on a variety of levels, from home to industrial. As landfills reach their capacity and ban acceptance of organic wastes, composting is an increasingly viable means of organic waste treatment. Moreover, the final product, finished composting, is a valuable soil resource with a variety of agricultural, see horticultural, and silvicultural uses. Composting is a method of waste disposal that allows organic materials to be recycled into a product that can be used as a valuable soil amendment. The composting process consist of microbiological treatment in which aerobic microorganisms use organic matter as a substrate. The main products of the composting process are fully mineralized materials, such as CO2, H2O, NH4, stabilized organic matter heavily populated with competitive microbial biomass and ash. Compost has the potential of improving soil structure, increasing cation exchange capacity and enhancing plant growth. However, many factors can contribute to the quality of the compost products as different type of organic wastes have different concentration of nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (N, P, and K) which are the common macro nutrients present of fertilizers. The presence of heavy metals show how compost can be applied to soils without contributing any ill effect. In term of the factor affecting the composting process, temperature, pH, moisture contents and carbon nitrogen ratio (C: N) are the main parameters that contribute to the efficiency of the composting process.


PHAGE COCKTAIL - AN ALTERNATIVE THERAPY TO ANTIBIOTIC
Ami S. Chavda

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
7amic99@gmail.com

Virus that infect bacteria, known as bacteriophage or phages in general, were discovered nearly 100 years ago. Their potential as antibacterial agent was appreciated almost immediately, with the first "phage therapy" trial predating Fleming's discovery of penicillin .In this study, it is considered that phage therapy can be used for treating bacterial infection in human, domestic animals and even bio control in food. Following study is in overview to explore the experimental method of mixing therapeutic phage into cocktail consisting of multiple virus type. Phage therapy is important alternative to antibiotics for treating multi drug resistance pathogens. Specificity of phage infection and its mechanism of replication is used in phage cocktail therapy. Phage therapy is used as an alternative therapy to antibiotics treatment.


CLOSTRIDIUM TO TREAT CANCER: DREAM OR REALITY ?
Dhanesha Kinjal S.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
KinjaldhaneshaKinjal@gmail.com

Solid tumour accounts for 90% of all cancers. The current treatment approach for most solid tumours is surgery, however it is limited to early stage tumours. Other treatment options such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy are non - selective, thus causing damage to both healthy and cancerous tissue. Past research has focused on understanding tumour cells themselves, and conventional wisdom has aimed at targeting these cells directly. Recent research has shifted towards understanding the tumour microenvironment and it's differences from that of healthy cells/tissues in the body and then to exploit these differences for treatmeat of the tumour. One such approach is utilizing anaerobic bacteria. Several strains of bacteria have been shown to selectively colonize in solid tumours, making them valuable tools for selective tumour targeting and destruction. Amongst them, the anaerobic Clostridium has shown great potential in penetration and colonization of the hypoxic and necrotic areas of the tumour microenvironment, causing significant oncolysis as well as enabling the delivery of therapeutics directly to the tumour in situ. Various strategies utilizing Clostridium are currently being investigated, and represent a novel area of emerging cancer therapy. This study provides an update review of tumour microenvironment as well as summary of the progresses and current status of Clostridial spore - based cancer therapies.


NATURAL PRODUCTS FOR COMBATING CANCER
Lakkad Priyanshi K.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
priyanshilakkad@gmail.com

Among all the diseases prevailing in the world, cancer is emerging as one of the most horrific disease. Cancer has been estimated as the second leading cause of death in humans. India recorded 3.9 million cases in 2016 and it is increase up to 9.6 million cases this year. The alarming increase in the global cancer death toll has fueled the quest for new effective anti - tumor drugs from different natural product. Because there are many difficulties and deficiencies in chemotherapeutic drugs, especially drug resistances that appear in cancer chemotherapy. Several plant - derived alkaloids like vinca alkaloid, glycitein, daidzein,etc. are leading drugs in the treatment of different types of cancer. Historically, it is proven that plants and their metabolites have great potential in the treatment of cancer. The novel bioactive compounds are obtained from many plants like Withania somnifera, catharanthus roseus, etc. are being studied as potential therapeutic agents because of their high activity and low toxicity. Cancer chemoprevention with natural phytochemical compounds is an emerging strategy to prevent, impede, delay, or cure cancer.


THE STRUCTURE AND BIOLOGICAL FUNCTION OF CREG
Savaliya Sandhya K.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
sandhyasavaliya@gmail.com

Researchers achieve important milestone about stem cells that helps a diseased heart to heal itself. According to Lee, (American Scientist - Leonard Y. Lee) fibroblasts, a cell in connective tissue, were isolated from heart tissue and reverse engineered or transformed into stem cells. This was done so that when the CREG (cellular repressor of E1A - stimulated genes) protein was over expressed the stem cells would differentiate into cardiac cells. CREG is a 220 amino acid glycoprotein structurally similar to oxidoreductases. However, CREG does not have enzymatic activities because it can not bind to the cofactor flavin mononucleotide. Although CREG can be secreted, it is mainly an intracellular protein localized in the endocytic lysosomal compartment. Biochemical studies have demonstrated that CREG interact with mannose - 6 - phosphate/insulin - growth factor - 2 receptor (M6p/IGF2R) and exocyst sec8. CREG inhibits proliferation and induces differentiation and senescence when over expressed in cultured cells. In Drosophila, RNA i - mediated knockdown of CREG causes developmental lethality at the pupal stage. In mice, global deletion of the CREG1 gene leads to early embryonic death. This findings establish an essential role of CREG in development.


FERMENTED FOOD & BENEFITS
Talaviya Jinal P.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
talaviyajinal29@gmail.com

We are using different type of fermented food in our daily life. Fermentation is the oldest of all. Check out India's much loved fermented food. Fermented foods are those nutrients rich food that obtain by microbial metabolic reaction, simply called "fermentation" reaction. In the India subcontinent fermented Food. Using local food crops and other biological resources are very common. Fermented foods consumed in India are categorized based upon our base material. Why fermented food good for us? Fermented foods are content microorganisms, such bacterial and yeasts, that use the nutrients as energy source in the food. Some of many ways that fermented foods support overall health include by improving digestion and cognitive function. Boosting immunity, helping irritable bowel disease. While fermented foods do offer certain health benefits, they do have some downside. The good bacteria may improve digestion, boost immunity promote a healthy weight. The bacteria grow during the fermentation process. There are many benefits of fermented food to our diet.


3 - D BIOPRINTING OF LIVING STRUCTURES WITH BUILT - IN CHEMICAL SENSORS
Parmar Shanti K.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
shantiparmar203@gmail.com

Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three - dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D BIOPRINTING is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non - biological printing 3D BIOPRINTING involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cell and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D BIOPRINTING has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multi layered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, hearts tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications included developing high - throughput 3D - bio printed tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology.


THE NEW DESIGNED PROTEIN THAT MIMICS INTERLEUKIN - 2 WITHOUT TOXIC EFFECTS AND WORKS AGAINST CANCER IN ANIMAL MODELS
Bheda Krishna R.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
krishnabheda1@gmail.com

Scientists have created a new protein that mimics a key immune regulatory protein, interleukin 2 (IL - 2). IL - 2 is a potent anticancer drug, but with toxic side effects. The researchers report using computer programs to design a protein that they have shown in animal models to have the same ability to stimulate cancer - fighting T - cells as IL - 2, but without triggering harmful side effects. IL - 2 is a potent anticancer drug and an effective treatment for autoimmune disease, but its toxic side effects have limited its clinical usefulness. The new protein, however, does not preferentially bind to the harmful cells. This new molecule enables activation of on - target tumor - fighting cells without preferentially activating the off - target cells responsible for toxicity and immunosuppression. To design a cancer - fighting protein that would not cause these side effects, the researchers used a computer program developed in the Baker lab called Rosetta. Using Rosetta, the researchers designed their protein to have surfaces that would bind to and activate IL - 2 receptor beta and gamma, but not the IL - 2 receptor alpha, which is part of the harmful cells. The new protein has been dubbed Neo - 2/15 because, in addition to mimicking the effect of IL - 2, the protein can also mimic the effect of another interleukin, IL - 15, which is being studied as another possible anticancer immunotherapy.


MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE IN BACTERIA
Usdad Raksha R.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
rakshausdad24@gmail.com

Multiple drug resistance or multidrug resistance is resistance shown by a species of microorganism towards multiple antimicrobial drugs. Large amount of antibiotics used for human therapy, as well as for farm animals and even for fish in Aquaculture, resulted in the selection of pathogenic bacteria resist to multiple drugs. Multidrug resistance in bacteria may be generated by one of two mechanisms; First, these bacteria may accumulate multiple genes, each coding for resistance to a single drug within a single cell. This accumulation occurs typically on resistance(R) plasmids. Second, multidrug resistance may also occur by the increased expression of genes that code for multidrug efflux pumps, extruding a wide range of drugs. The content included are: what is multiple drug resistance, multidrug resistance caused by altered physiological states, our current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in both types of resistance, sources of the resistance genes, common multiple drug resistant organisms and some future issues.


ADVANCED CANCER AND IT`S TREATMENT
Jivani Happy P.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
jivanihappy95@gmail.com

Cancer is a disease of the cell, which are the body`s basic building blocks. It occurs when abnormal cell divide and multiply in uncontrolled way. There are many types of cancer and each type cancer develop differently. Some grow slowly than some grow very rapidly, and some are behave unpredictably. Some types of cancer are easy to treat well and some are very difficult to treat. Advanced cancer is a term used to describe cancer is unlikely to be cured. It may be primary or secondary cancer. Primary cancer is refers to the first mass of cancer cell which is called as tumor in an organ or tissue. The tumor is confined to its original site, such as the bowel. This is called cancer in situ, carcinoma in situ or localized cancer. Secondary cancer keeps the name of the original, primary cancer. Although medical treatments may not be able to cure advanced cancer, some treatment may still be able to slow its growth or spread, sometimes for months or even years. Palliative care can also help manage cancer symptoms, which may include pain, and can reduce side effect from cancer treatment. At any stages of advance cancer, a range of other palliative care service can enhance quality of life.


NEW BIOSENSORS CATCH CANCER CELLS BEFORE THEY METASTASIZE
Vaghani Nidhi J.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
nidhivaghani89@gmail.com

The earlier cancer can be detected, the better the chance of a cure. Currently, many cancers are diagnosed only after they have metastasized throughout the body. Effective, accurate methods of cancer detection and clinical diagnosis are urgently needed. Biosensors are devices that are designed to detect a specific biological analytic by essentially converting a biological entity (ie, protein, DNA, RNA) into an electrical signal that can be detected and analyzed. A tumor cell that has acquired high FERT (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer), biosensor readout whereas the cells that are sensitive to chemotherapy (and hence, low potential).Thee of biosensors in cancer detection and monitoring holds vast potential. Biosensors can be designed to detect emerging cancer biomarkers and to determine drug effectiveness at various target sites. Biosensor technology has the potential to provide fast and accurate detection, reliable imaging of cancer cells, and monitoring of angiogenesis and cancer metastasis, and the ability to determine the effectiveness of anticancer chemotherapy agents. This review will briefly summarize the current obstacles to early detection of cancer and the expanding use of biosensors as a diagnostic tool, as well as some future applications of biosensor technology.


GENE ADDITING
Sureja Keshvi V.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
surejakeshvi@gmail.com

Geneticists engineering of model organisms and cultured cells has for decades provided important insights into the mechanisms underlying cardiovascular development and disease. Of these, the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR - associated protein 9) system has become the favourite for its ease of application. Studies on its off - target activity, along with approaches to minimize this activity will be given. The advantages of gene editing versus gene targeting in embryonic stem cells, including the breadth of species and cell types to which it is applicable, will be discussed. The CRISPR/Ca9s system is also being used for high - throughput screening of genes, gene regulatory regions, and long noncoding RNAs. In addition, the CRISPR system is being used for nongene - editing purposes such as activation and inhibition of gene expression, as well as for fluorescence tagging of chromosomal regions and individual mRNAs to track their cellular location. Finally, an approach to circumvent the inability of post - mitotic cells to support homologous recombination - based gene editing will be presented. In conclusion, applications of the CRISPR/Cas system are expanding at a breath - taking pace and are revolutionizing approaches to gain a better understanding of human diseases.


BIOMARKERS IN TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY
Parmar Priyanka M.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
priyanka810parmar@gmail.com

A biomarker is an indicator of the presence of biological process that is directly linked to manifestation and outcome of a particular disease biomarkers have particular relevance to chronic neurodegenerative disease and brain related injuries, to improve early diagnosis at a stage when disease modifying therapies are likely to be most effectively, to monitor disease progression and efficacy of any therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be broadly defined qualitative or quantitative measurement that conveys information on the physio pathological state of a subject at certain time point or disease state. Here we will focus on biomarkers which are present in peripheral body fluids such saliva and blood. In particular blood biomarkers, such glial, fibrillary acidic protein and salivary/blood S100B; will be discussed together with the help of nucleic acid (for e.g. DNA) collected from peripheral cells. Traumatic brain injuries can be classified by the mechanism of injuries (for e.g. Motor vehicle accidents, fall and assaults) through clinical severity or by the characterization of structural damage. The heterogeneity of the disease makes it difficult to accurately assess the level of trauma and predict the clinical outcomes for individual patients and their long - term consequences are very severe. Hence biomarkers provide a universal and comprehensive traumatic brain injury assessment protocol, a challenging hurdle in the field of health care.


GUMMY SMILE
Tejvani Nayna T.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
nenatejvani@gmail.com

Gummy smile also known as excessive gingival display, is a smile that shows an excessive amount of gum under the upperlip.it cause of Dental eruption, lip elevator muscles or excessive vertical growth of bone Mexican. It is cure by the treatment of Botulinium toxin A. it excreta from Clostridium botulinium secret in form of Botox toxin A. Botox cosmetic proving to be an affordable alternative for thousands of people looking to enhance their appearance without the cost, risks and downtime associated with surgical procedures. The botulinium toxin is a neuromuscular blocking agent. It is an anaerobic bacteria. First discovered Botox was pinpointed as the cause of serve paralysis acquired through the injection of contaminated food. Paralysis releveted to Botox is caused by chemo denervation which is a result of blockage of the presynaptic release of Acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. The targeted areas of Botox injection is like this crow's feet, forehead, platysmal neck bands, & jowel. The Botox (BTX - A) has been successful in the treatment of gummy smile. The Botulinium treatment remove the wrinkles form particular area of the skin.


TURMERIC AND CURCUMIN: BIOLOGICAL ACTIONS AND MEDICINAL APPLICATIONS
Jadav Vibhuti R.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
rajput8000975504@gmail.com

Turmeric is extensive used as a spice, food preservative and coloring material in India, China and South East Asia. It has been used in traditional medicine as a household remedy for various diseases, including biliary disorders, cough, diabetic wounds, and hepatic disorders. For the last few decades, extensive work has been done to establish the biological activities and pharmacological actions of turmeric and its extracts. Cur cumin, the main yellow bioactive component of turmeric has been shown to have a wide spectrum of biological actions. These include its anti - inflammatory, antioxidant, antifertility, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, antiviral, antivenin, antiulcer, antibacterial activities. Clinically, curcumin has already been used to reduce post - operative inflammation. Safety evaluation studied indicate that both turmeric and curcumin are well tolerated at a very high dose without any toxic effects. Thus, both turmeric and curcumin are well tolerated at a very high dose without any toxic effects. Thus, both turmeric and curcumin have the potential for the development of modern medicine for the treatment of various diseases.


STEM CELL (UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD) BANKING
Jivani Drushti N.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh

Stem cells are at the forefront of one of the most fascinating and revolutionary areas of biology today. Scientists are rapidly discovering many revolutionary uses for Stem cells, because they have the unique capability to either multiply or develop into cells types. Stem cell transplantation is an accepted curative therapy for many malignant and nonmalignant conditions affecting children and adults. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has become a widely accepted alternative source of Hematopoietic Stem cells (HSC) for transplantation. Umbilical cord blood is blood that remains in the placenta and in the umbilical cord following birth of a child which is usually discarded. There are three known accessible sources of autologous adult stem cells in humans: bone marrow, adipose tissue, and blood. Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood just after birth. Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one's own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures. Stem cells are the body's "master" cells that regenerate and turn into the cells that form all of the tissues, organs, and system in the human body. They can divide and replenish other cells and have the capability to develop into any kind of tissues which constitute different organs.


CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON CORAL REEFS
Chaniyara Nirali A.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
niralichaniyara1151@gmail.com

Coral reefs are one of the major part of our ecosystem. But today climate change causes great threat to the coral reefs. Although many factors are implicated, climate change has emerged as a dominant and rapidly growing threat. Developing a long term strategic plan for the conservation of coral reefs are urgently needed yet is complicated. Human impact on coral reefs is significant. Coral reefs are dying around the world. Damaging activities include coral mining, pollution (organic and non - organic), overfishing, blast fishing, the digging of canals and access into islands and bays. Other dangers include disease, destructive fishing practices and warming oceans. Factors that affect coral reefs include the ocean's role as a carbon dioxide sink, atmospheric changes, ultraviolet light, ocean acidification, viruses, impacts of dust storms carrying agents to far - flung reefs, pollutants, algal blooms and others. Reefs are threatened well beyond coastal areas. Warming cause's coral bleaching, which if severe kills the coral. As coral reef give some important benefit to human life, its conservation is important different method are implemented to conserve them and make less climate change effects on them. These locations are constitute important opportunities for novel conservation investments to secure less vulnerable yet well connected coral reefs that may, in turn help to repopulate degraded areas.


BIODEGRADATION OF PLASTIC
Dharsandiya Srushti A

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
srushtidharsandiya2004@gmail.com

Plastic is a general term used for wide range of heteropolymer obtained from hydrocarbons which are generally non - biodegradable with some exceptions. The ever - increasing trend towards the production and consumption of plastic due to extensive application in different fields. Fields like food processing industries, household things, piping, plumbing, furniture, toys, etc. As lack of proper waste management and disposal the threat to the environment is increasing every day. As the plastic is non - biodegradable so it remains underrated in the soil and cause barren land. So the use of biodegradable plastic should be promoted. It can be made from agriculture by - products so it is cheaper. No international standard has been established to define home - compostable plastics, however, national standards have been created; in Australia: AS 5810 "biodegradable plastics suitable for home composting", and in France: NF T 51 - 800 "Specifications for plastics suitable for home composting". The French standard is based on the "OK compost home certification scheme", developed by Belgian certifier TÜV Austria Belgium. This will cause no pollution in the environment and the management will be easy. The biofavourable system to degrade of plastic should be used like degradation of plastic using microorganisms. This will prevent more pollution cause in the environment and help in management of plastic waste. So we can conserve our environment from more pollution.


GENOME EDITING WITH "CRISPR "
Thakar Yosha S.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
kleemthakar@gmail.com

Genome editing also called gene editing is a group of technologies that give scientists the ability to change an organisms DNA. Recently technology for genome editing named as CRISPR which stands for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, which are the hallmark of a bacterial defense system that forms the basis of CRISPR - Cas 9 genome editing technology. CRISPRs were first discovered in Archaea by Francisco Mojica, a scientist at the University Alicante in Spain. CRISPR "Spacer" sequences are transcribed into short RNA sequence capable of guiding the system to matching sequence of DNA. CRISPR - Cas9 is providing to be an efficient and customizable alternative to other existing genome editing tools. CRISPR genome editing allows scientists to quickly create cell and animals models which researchers can use to accelerate research into disease such as cancer and mental illness. In addition, CRISPR is now being developed as a rapid diagnostic. CRISPR technology offers the promise to cure any human genetic disease. CRISPR has already changed the way scientists do research. As this is a lifesaving technology it will be demanding a huge cost, for that health insurance plans will cover the cost of genetic testing. As for example: A dominant cataract causing mutation in the crygc gene is corrected using CRISPR - Cas 9.


PROPLAST FORMATION
Parmar Meenaxi P.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
meenaxi2082000@gmail.com

In this review we focus on recent progress in protoplast regeneration, symmetric and Asymmetric hybridization and novel technology developments .Regeneration of new Species and improved culture techniques opened new horizons for practical breeding in a number of crops. The importance of protoplast sources and embedding system is discussed. The study of reactive oxygen species effect and DNA (de) condensation, Along with though phytohormone monitoring, are in our opinion the most promising research topic in the further strive for rationalization of protoplast Regeneration. Following, fusion and fragmentation process is summarized. Genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies have led to better insights in fundamental processes such as cell wall formation, cell development and chromosome rearrangement in fusion Product, whether or not obtained after irradiation .Advanced molecular screening method of both genome and cytoplasm facilitate efficient screening of both symmetric and asymmetric fusion product. We expect that emerging technologies as GISH, high resolution melting and next generation sequencing will pay major contribution to our Insights of genome creation and stabilization, mainly after asymmetric hybridization. Finally, we demonstrate agricultural valorization of somatic hybridization through enumerating recent introgression of diverse traits in a number of Commercial crops.


ACCIDENTAL MUTANT ENZYME
Nimavat Deizy R.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
nimavatdeizy@gmail.com

The break through spurred by the discovery of plastic - eating bugs at a japanese dump, could help solve the global plastic pollution crisis. Scientist has created a mutant enzyme that breaks down plastic drink bottles - by accident. The breakthrough could help solve the global plastic pollution crisis by enabling for the first time the full recycling of bottles. The new research was spurred by the discovery in 2016 of the first bacterium that had naturally evolved to eat plastic, at a waste dump in Japan. The mutant enzyme takes a few days to start breaking down the plastics. About 1 million plastic bottles are sold each minute but just 14% recycle, and many end up in the ocean. It is incredibly resistant to degradation. Mutant enzyme is transplant in to "Extremophile bacteria" that can survive temperature above 70C, at which point PET changes from a glassy to a viscous state, making it likely to degrade 10 - 100 times faster. Some fungi can break down PET plastic. Enzymes are non - toxic, biodegradable and can be produced in a large amount by microorganisms. It gives us scope to use all the technology used in other enzyme development for years and years and make a super fast enzyme.


ADVEANCE STUDY ON BIOFILM SYSTEMS IN WASTE WATER
Faldu Bhakti D.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
bhaktifaldu16@gmail.com

Fixed film processes and activated sludge processes are two main families of wastewater treatment systems which all refer to the heterogeneous microbial communities. Meanwhile, biofilms in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) and biofouling in membrane systems are significant problems in the water and wastewater treatment which reduce the microbial quality of drinking water and limit the development of membrane system respectively. Since biofilms and quorum sensing (QS) as two microbial social behaviors have been inextricably linked, a number of studies have focused on the role of QS signaling and QS inhibition in the processes of water and wastewater treatment, which will help us engineer these biological treatment processes successfully and develop promising approaches for control of microbial adhesion, colonization and biofilm formation. This review gives a summary of recent known QS mechanisms and their role in biofilm formation for different species. Particular attentions are dedicated to the signaling molecules involved in some microbial granulation processes and the potential applications by some of their natural and synthetic analogues in the treatment of membrane biofouling.


MALARIA
Amrutiya Ishita B.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
iamrutiya304@gmail.com

Malaria is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan of the genus plasmodium. It is a major problem in third - world countries, with hundreds of millions of infections and millions of fatalities annually. Current attempts at controlling this disease, which include pasticides and drugs, are unsatisfactory. New techniques of malaria prevention and treatment are currently in development, including vaccines. We propose a technique that combines two different technologies that are under development. The first aspect of this technology involves the use of antibodies against the enzyme aminopeptidase, which exists in the stomach of the anopheles mosquito and is essential in the life cycle of the parasite. Additionally, certain types of malaria parasites, such as P. vivax and P. ovale, have liver stages where the parasite can live in your body for an extended period of time and reactivate at a later date causing a relapse of the infection. The second aspect in the genetic engineering of algae, a food source of mosquito larvae, to make it produce this antibodies so that they will be introduced into the digestive system of the mosquito.


INHALABLE FORM OF MESSENGER RNA
Dav Hiral M.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
davhiral@gmail.com

In an advance that could lead to new treatments for lung disease, the researchers have now designed an Inhalable form of mRNA. Because mRNA can be easily broken down in the body, it need to transport within some kind of protective carrier. The researchers develop Nano particles that support the therapeutic delivery of drugs and Macro molecules. The advanced drug delivery systems researchers have developed provide new methods for Nano particulate and Micro particulate drug delivery, and vaccines. The particles the team created consist of spheres approximately 150 Nano meters in diameter. The researchers also demonstrated that the Nano particles could be Freeze - dried into a powder, suggesting that it may be possible to deliver them via an inhaler instead of nebulizer, which could make the medication more convenient for patients. In addition to Nano therapeutics, researchers are interested in developing advanced biomaterials for a range of applications including, Super biocompatible materials for islet transplantation, Biomaterial for the growth, controlled differentiation, and therapeutic use of stem cells and Neural tissue engineering.


ADVANCE STUDY ON BIOFILM SYSTEM IN WASTE WATER
Dobariya Tejasvi K

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
dobariyatejasvi@gmail.com

In the Waste water treatment industry. Process optimization and performance stabilization are prime objective in order to achieve more effective. Reliable, and economically feasible treatment of municipal, agricultural, and industrial waste streams. There biofilm reactor systems for waste water treatment have been developed at NUI. Galway, which include a Vertically Moving Biofilm Reactor (VMBR) ,a pumped Flow Biofilm Reactor (PFBR), and a Horizontal Flow Biofilm Reactor(HFBR), These different reactor systems have been especially designed for local treatment of small waste streams and demonstrate very good properties for the removal of nitrogen ,phosphorus , and organics. The main project aim is to study reactor biofilm dynamics by using a scientific approach that combines advanced microbial techniques. Detailed information about kinetics, micro - scale distribution of chemistry and process. And microbial community structures in biofilms, will be obtained through the application of micro sensors for a broad range of chemical species and through the use of molecular techniques like fluorescence in - situ Hybridization.


PROBIOTIC
Gain Sneha S.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
snehagain2000@gmail.com

Probiotic are defined as live microorganisms which, when provided in sufficient amount, have a beneficial effect on human health. Probiotic bacteria have become increasingly popular during the last two decades as a result of the continuously expending scientific evidence pointing to their beneficial effects on human health. Only recently, however, has the contribution of probiotic to modulation of immunological, respiratory, and gastrointestinal function started to be fully appreciated and scientifically evaluated. Within this market the probiotics have been incorporated in various product, mainly fermented dairy foods. Due to probiotic's vulnerability to several environmental factors such as temperature and pH, maintaining the viability of probiotics have long been a hurdle to develop successful probiotic delivery system. Probiotic is also effect of direct food microbial on intestinal histomormorphomertrics and microarchitecture were examined. Recent scientific investigation has supported the important role of probiotics as a part of healthy diet for human as well as animal and may be an avenue to provide a safe, cost effective and natural approach that add a barrier against microbial infection. Different probiotic contain different microorganisms which may have behave differently, as probiotics are not entities. It has been indicated that multi - strain preparations is highly efficient in animal feeding.


BIODIVERSITY
Ladani Dipsha

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
ladani99258@gmail.com

Habitat destruction has driven much of the current biodiversity extinction crisis, and it compromises the essential benefits, or ecosystem services, that humans derive from functioning ecosystems. Securing both species and ecosystem services might be accomplished with common solutions. Yet it is unknown whether these two major conservation objectives coincide broadly enough worldwide to enable global strategies for both goals to gain synergy. In this article, we assess the concordance between these two objectives, explore how the concordance varies across different regions, and examine the global potential for safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystem services simultaneously. We find that published global priority maps for biodiversity conservation harbor a disproportionate share of estimated terrestrial ecosystem service value (ESV). Overlap of biodiversity priorities and ESV varies among regions, and in areas that have high biodiversity priority but low ESV, specialized conservation approaches are necessary. Overall, however, our findings suggest opportunities for safeguarding both biodiversity and ecosystem services. Sensitivity analyses indicate that results are robust to known limitations of available ESV data. Capitalizing on these opportunities will require the identification of synergies at fine scales, and the development of economic and policy tools to exploit them.


DIAGNOSTIC BACTERIOLOGY
Aashuta Patoliya P.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
aashutapatoliya88@gmail.com

Current clinical methodology for identification of bacterial infections relies predominantly on culturing microbes from patient material and performing biochemical tests. This can often be an inefficient and lengthy process, which has a significant detrimental effect upon patient care. Techniques used in other aspects of molecular research have the potential to revolutionize the way in which diagnostic tests are used and delivered in the clinical setting. The need for rapid, accurate, and cost - effective molecular techniques in the diagnostic laboratory is imperative to improving patient care, preventing the spread of drug resistance and decreasing the overall burden associated with nosocomial infections. Raman spectroscopy and surface - enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) are powerful vibrational spectroscopy techniques that are being developed for highly sensitive pathogen identification in complex clinical samples. Raman spectroscopy is a molecular technique that is capable of probing samples noninvasively and nondestructively. It has been used with high specificity to assess tissue and bacterial samples at the molecular level with diverse clinical and diagnostic applications. SERS has recently developed out of the advances in the Raman spectroscopy arena. This technique is designed to amplify Raman scattering and allows for better differentiation of bacterial isolates. Although the current parameters for the use of SERS require a pure culture and are relatively monoparametric, current breakthroughs and testing are pushing the technology to new levels and thus changing the face of modern bacterial diagnostics.


BINEURAL BEATS
Jivani Umang R.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
umangjivani221299@gmail.com

A binaural beat is an auditory illusion perceived when two different pure - tone sine waves, both with frequencies lower than 1500 Hz, with less than a 40 Hz difference between them, are presented to a listener dichotic ally (one through each ear). The power of binaural beats was discovered in 1839 by Heinrich Winhelm Dove.136 years later, Gerald Oster published an article called " Auditory beats in brain ", which was published in " Scientific American " in 1973 there are five type of binaural beats delta waves it's fervency between 0.1 to 4 Hz mainly use for deep sleep ,pain relief ,access to unconscious mind .theta waves fervency between 4to 8 Hz useful for deep relaxation ,creativity ,gogic status .alpha waves fervency 8 to 14 Hz mainly useful for stress reduction ,accelerated study flow state beta waves fervency 14 to 30 Hz this type waves mainly use to focused attention ,analytical thinking problem solving and stimulates energy action .gamma waves fervency 30 to 100 Hz it's waves affect not only human mind but livelihood of the entire world mainly use to memory recall, high-level information processing.


THIOPHILIC ADSORPTION A NEW METHOD FOR PROTEIN FRACTIONATION
Peshivadiya Hepi A.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
hepipatel1199@gmail.com

Scientist have synthesized new supports for the purification of insulin and IgG by affinity chromatography these supports combine the advantages of bio specific ligands with the excellent separation properties of thiophilic sorbents. The existence of N - acetyl - neuraminic acid in insulin receptor and in the antigenic determine of IgG suggest interactions usable in affinity chromatography. Therefore, N - acetylneuraminic acid was used as an active ligand in comparison with the ß - mercaptoethanol. The performances of these supports were tested under static and dynamic (LC) conditions.The support functionalized by sialic acid appears significantly more selective than the support grafted by ß - mercaptoethanol; and its purification yield is better. This new support showed similar adsorption characteristics with thiophilic adsorbent. This one - step procedure also leads to a considerable concentration of dilute solutions of immunoglobulins. Moreover, the purified Igs are eluted by an essentially salt - free buffer at near neutral pH thus obviating the need for post - treatment of the sample before storage or subsequent conjugation to enzymes for use in immunoassays. This purification method is also well suited for large - scale operations since sample preparation requires only the addition of 0.5 M K2SO4 to the ascites fluid or cell culture medium. These affinity supports allowed a one - step separation of the insulin and IgG subclasses from a pancreatic extract and mouse ascetic fluids, respectively, by LC.


NANOVACCINATION
Suriya Megha Shaileshbhai

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
meghasuriya76@gmail.com

NANOVACCINATION: Vaccination is the most efficient way to protect humans against pathogens. Peptide based vaccines, which utilized whole organisms or proteins. However, peptides alone are not immunogenic and need a delivery system that can boost their recognition by the immune system. In recent years, nanotechnology - based approaches have become one of the most promising strategies in peptide vaccine delivery. This review summarizes knowledge on peptide vaccines and nanotechnology - based approaches for their delivery. The recently reported nano - sized delivery platforms for peptide antigens are reviewed, including nanoparticles composed of polymers, peptides, lipid, inorganic materials and nanotubes. The future prospects for peptide - based nanovaccines are discussed. Nanomaterials are delivered in the form of microspheres, Nano beads or micro - Nano projections. Painless, effective and safe needle - free routes such as the intranasal or the oral route, or patches of micro projections to the skin are some of the approaches which are in the experimental stage at present but may have a great future ahead in Nano vaccination. As a result, this multivalent nanovaccine, achieved through nanotechnology, has the potential to provide microanatomical and functional imaging feedback of the DC - targeted anti - cancer immunotherapy, thus leading to longitudinal treatment and monitoring.


HYDROPONIC FARMING TECHNIQUE
Manthan J. Lakhlani

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh

Hydroponics is a subject of HYDROCULTURE, which is a method of growing plants without soil by using mineral nutrients in water solvents. TERRESTRIAL PLANTS may be grown with only their roots exposed to the mineral solutions, or roots may be supported by an inert medium, such as perlite or gravels. The nutrients used in hydroponic systems can come from an array of different sources; these can include byproduct of fish waste or purchased chemical fertilizers. This technique is done on the simple work form and can be done at any place having sufficient water present. The nutrients are added to the water and pH is maintain to grow high quality plants and crops. In this method the flow of water is made continuous and the plants get nutrients from that water and grow at high quality as such performed. This technique is advanced technique because the agricultural land are getting lower day by day, and this technique will give new form of farming without the use of land. This technique was first performed by FRANCIS BACON and gave information about it in the book called "A NATURAL HISTORY".


ENDANGERED WINGS
Bhavya Sevak

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
Bsevak154001@gmail.com

Human, birds, animals we all live on earth together as a family but as u know human things he is greater than everyone and uses other creature for its own benefit. Human has caused big harm to the birds ,due to air pollution ,noise pollution created by human, many bird species have extinct and some of them are on verge of its extinction .The factor that has affected the bird the most is radiation caused by different machine created by human, mobile towers are one of them. We know every year around 6.8 million birds are killed due to mobile tower. And most of this birds killed are migratory birds. Birds have a natural compass system in their body with which it migrates from one place to another .but as no of mobile towers have increased it is difficult for birds to migrate has radiation from mobile tower have affected their system not just migration but it also has affected its internal organ and reproductive system. Government has made some rules for the network company to run their tower but to give service to us they increase the frequency of the tower which affect the birds highly.


DNA REPLICATION
Jani Jigarbhai N.

Department of Life Science, S.E.T Mahila College, Junagadh (Bhattu)
janijigar2001@gmail.com

DNA replicates by "unzipping" along the two strands, breaking the hydrogen bonds which link the pairs of nucleotides. Each half then serves as a template for nucleotides available in the cells which are joined together by DNA polymerase. The nucleotides are guanine, cytosine, adenine and thymine. DNA replication or DNA synthesis is the process of copying a double - stranded DNA molecule. This process is important in all known forms of life and the general mechanisms of DNA replication are the same in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. The process by which a DNA molecule makes its identical copies is referred to as DNA replication. In other words, it is the process of duplicating the DNA to make two identical copies. The main points related to DNA replication are briefly presented below.DNA exists as a double - stranded structure, with both strands coiled together to form the characteristic double - helix. Each single strand of DNA is a chain of four types of nucleotides. Nucleotides in DNA contain a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate, and a nucleobase.


LIGNIN DEGRADATION BY WHITE ROD BASIDIOMYTECES
Kishan Borkhatriya

Dyes released by the textile industries pose a threat to environmental quality. Ligninolytic white - rot basidiomycetes can effectively degrade colored effluents and conventional dyes. White - rot fungi produce various isoforms of extracellular oxidases including laccase, Mn peroxidase and lignin peroxidase (LiP), which are involved in the degradation of lignin in their natural lignocellulosic substrates. The textile industry, by far the most avid user of synthetic dyes, is in need of eco - efficient solutions for its colored effluents. White rot basidiomycetous fungi comprise the only group of organisms known to completely degrade lignin. Ligninolytic enzymes have potential applications in a large number of fields, including the chemical, fuel, food, agricultural, paper, textile, cosmetic industrial sectors and more. This ligninolytic system of white - rot fungi is also directly involved in the degradation of various xenobiotic compounds apart from textile dyes. Their capacities to remove xenobiotic substances make them a useful tool for bioremediation purposes. This paper reviews involvement of ligninolytic enzymes of white rot basidiomycetes in the degradation of textiles dyes and xenobiotic compounds for their industrial and biotechnological applications.


CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS
Jotva Dipika L.

Canine distemper virus is a member of the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridaethat causes severe disease in dogs and a range of wild mammals. The clinical signs relate essentially to the respiratory, gastrointestinal and central nervous systems. In South Africa, infection with Ehrlichia canisand canine parvovirus may present similarly. Many dogs will initially present with a wide range of central nervous system signs without any history of systemic disease. A recent South African study evaluating ante mortem diagnosis highlighted the importance of recognising clinical signs, cerebrospinal fluid IgG titres, serum IgM titres and immunocytochemistry of epithelial tissue. A 2 - year retrospective evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid samples collected from dogs presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital indicates that distemper infection is common, and this disease should routinely be suspected in cases of diverse neurological disease in dogs. The South African dog population is specifically at high risk for the disease because of the large pool of unvaccinated, reproductively - active dogs that expose the wildlife resources of the country to risk of fatal disease. Outbreaks of disease in dogs continue to occur in developed and developing communities in both vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs worldwide, and have also been described in a wide range of free - ranging wildlife, including seals, dolphins and lions, and in endangered zoo animals. Modified live virus vaccines have contributed markedly to disease control in the dog population but have caused mortality in some wild carnivores. New recombinant vaccines are being developed that will be safe in wild animals. The pathogenesis of CNS demyelination has been compared to various important demyelinating diseases in humans and, amongst other things, relates to down - regulation of the oligodendrocyte gene coding for myelin synthesis and non - immunocyte CNS cell expression of type II major histocompatibility receptors. Early CNS lesions are characterised by demyelination and later lesions by perivascular round cell cuffing. Treatment is supportive.


PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON
Jotva Anjali

One of the major environmental problems today is hydrocarbon contamination resulting from the activities related to the petrochemical industry. Accidental releases of petroleum products are of particular concern in the environment. Hydrocarbon components have been known to belong to the family of carcinogens and neurotoxic organic pollutants. Currently accepted disposal methods of incineration or burial insecure landfills can become prohibitively expensive when amounts of contaminants are large. Mechanical and chemical methods generally used to remove hydrocarbons from contaminated sites have limited effectiveness and can be expensive. Bioremediation is the promising technology for the treatment of these contaminated sites since it is cost - effective and will lead to complete mineralization. Bioremediation functions basically on biodegradation, which may refer to complete mineralization of organic contaminants into carbon dioxide, water, inorganic compounds, and cell protein or transformation of complex organic contaminants to other simpler organic compounds by biological agents like microorganisms. Many indigenous microorganisms in water and soil are capable of degrading hydrocarbon contaminants. This paper presents an updated overview of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms under different ecosystems.


BIOREMEDIATION
Kanasagara Khushbu D. & Kaneriya Kruti K.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
khushipatel0905@gmail.com & kaneriyakruti@gmail.com

Bioremediation is a natural process that involves the use of biological entities to neutralize the contaminated site. Bioremediation is a treatment that uses naturally occurring organisms to breakdown hazardous substances into less toxic or nontoxic substances. Mostly used for contaminated soil and water site. Microorganisms used to perform the function of bioremediation are known as bioremediators. Not all contaminants are easily treated by bioremediation using microorganisms. Mycoremediation is a form of bioremediation in which fungi are used to decontaminate the area. Phytoremediation is use living plant to clean up soil, air and water contaminated with hazardous chemicals. Toxic heavy metals and organic pollutants are the major targets for phytoremediation.


TARGETING DNA REPAIR TO COMBAT CANCER CHEMORESISTANCE
Rakholiya Darshana M. & Rudani Payal P.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
rakholiyadarshana191@gmail.com & Payalrudani1@gmail.com

The cells in your body are continually dividing, to understand what chemo resistance is, we first need to understand what a cancer cell is and every time they do so their DNA must be unzipped and copied. This copying process isn't perfect; just as if you had to copy out the entirety of War and Peace word for word you'd probably make the odd mistake, your body's DNA copying machinery has the occasional mishap. Disruptions in DNA repair pathways predispose cells to accumulating DNA damage. A growing body of evidence indicates that tumors accumulate progressively more mutations in DNA repair proteins as cancers progress. Chemotherapy fails to cure most cancer patients with advanced disease, particularly patients with the most common forms of solid tumors. Germ line aberrations in critical DNA - repair and DNA damage-response (DDR) genes cause cancer predisposition, whereas various tumors harbour somatic mutations causing defective DDR/DNA repair. Inhibition may be direct or indirect. This burgeoning field of research is replete with promise and challenge, as more intricacies of each repair pathway are discovered.


GENOME EDITING : CRISPR
Gajera Radhika M. & Kaneriya Radhika M.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
patelradhu12@gmail.com & radhikakaneriya0259@gmail.com

CRISPR/Cas9 is the latest tool introduced in the field of genome engineering and is so far the best genome - editing tool as compared to its precedents such as, meganucleases, zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator - like effectors (TALENs). Once known as the bacterial immune system against invading viruses, the programmable capacity of the Cas9 enzyme is now revolutionizing diverse fields of medical research, biotechnology, and agriculture. The simple design and assembly of the CRISPR/Cas9 system makes genome editing easy to perform as it uses small guide RNAs that correspond to their DNA targets for high efficiency editing. This has helped open the doors for multipliable genome targeting in many species that were intractable using old genetic perturbation techniques. The application areas of catalytically impaired inactive Cas9, including gene regulation, epigenetic editing, chromatin engineering, and imaging, now exceed the gene - editing functionality of WT Cas9. Currently, The CRISPR system is revolutionizing the way biological researches are conducted and paves a bright future not only in research but also in medicine and biotechnology. We introduce genome editing & CRISPR. Second explain CRISPR/Cas System &protocol. Third present its current application, advantages.


EDIBLE VACCINES
Bapodara Janki R.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
jankibapodara1010@gmail.com

As prevention is better than cure, scientist develops vaccine as a means of prevention, which is prepared from diseases causing agents, given to organisms to prevent future encountered diseases. A variety of delivery systems have been developed. Vaccinating animal/humans with edible plants is a new emerging idea that appears to hold great promise. Introduced as a concept about a decade ago, it has become a reality today. It involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. Edible vaccines hold great vow as a cost - effective, easy to administer, east to store, fail -safe and sociocultural readily acceptable vaccines delivery system, especially for the poor developing countries. Therefore, it play great role, especially in Third World countries where transportation costs, poor refrigeration and needle use complicate vaccines administration. Initially, thought to be useful only for preventing infectious diseases. It has also found application in prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancer therapy, etc.


CAN PLANT TALK TO EACH OTHER?
Davda Pooja D. & Ranavaya Meena R.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
poojadavda781@gmail.com and meenaranavaya88@gmail.com

When plants are under pathogen attack or experiencing abiotic stress condition, they can emit signaling molecules that can be received and perceive by their neighbouring plants. VOC represents the largest part of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) released into our atmosphere. Plant volatiles are formed through many biochemical pathways, after stress induction BVOCs have important function in protecting plants from abiotic stress. Receiving plants can respond to such signals by inducing defense responses, by changing growth. Such transfer of information between plants, also named "interplant communication", can take place above or below ground. Above ground signaling molecules are transported through air as blends of volatile compound of specific concentration. Below ground, plant can send and perceive signals through roots or common mycorrhizal network.


LIGHT POLLUTION UNDER THE OCEAN
Nakum Tasvi P. & Amrutiya Anandi B.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
tnakum00@gmail.com & amrutiyaanandi@gmail.com

Chemical pollutants, coastal zone destruction, habitat loss, nutrient discharges, hypoxic zones and catastrophic overfishing have all heavily impacted life in our ocean. Major efforts are being made worldwide to manage and minimize these threats. However, one particular pollutant, light, is still permitted to flood into our seas almost unchecked. Despite centuries of use artificial light at night has only recently been recognize as a cause for environmental concern. Ecologist have studied on the natural light but have not investigated the consequences of artificial night lighting. It is alarming that as the intentional and unintentional illumination of the coastal zone and near shore environment increases unabated, we still have little idea of the extent to which intertidal and sublittoral ecosystems are being affected. There is also growing concern regarding the introduction of light into the deep ocean.


CURCUMIN : THE ANTICANCER AGENT OF BREAST CANCER
Bhalani Mansi M. & Ukani Komal N.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
mp0042379@gmail.com & komalukani111@gmail.com

The cancer stem cell hypothesis asserts that malignancies arise in tissue stem or progenitor cells through the dysregulation or acquisition of self - renewal. Numerous studies have shown that curcumin, a natural compound, exerts anticancer effects by inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and metastasis and by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In particular, curcumin exhibits potent inhibitory effects on breast cancer, the most prevalent type of cancer among women worldwide. It has low maximal inhibitory concentration for breast cancer cell lines that express the hormone receptor ER and sensitizes cell lines to anticancer drugs. Moreover, it can induce apoptosis in cell lines independently of hormone receptor expression. In addition, curcumin inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer stem cells (BCSC), an important factor that influences cancer recurrence. The inhibition of BCSC proliferation suppresses metastasis and reattachment, ultimately limiting tumor formation. A xenograft study similarly showed that curcumin exerts tumor suppression effects on cancer cells and cancer stem cells. Therefore, curcumin is a potential anticancer compound, and its concurrent application with other anticancer drugs appears promising.


GOLD NANOPARTICLE USED IN CANCER THERAPY
Kher Dipika D. & Parmar Namrata A.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
parmarnamrata1609@gmail.com & dipikakher1612@gmail.com

According to the National Cancer Registry Programme of the India, council of Medical Research, more than 1300 Indians die every day due to cancer. Nanotechnology provide incredible opportunistic for multimodel, site specific drug delivery to these disease site. Gold Nanoparticles are evolving as promising agent for cancer therapy and are being explored as drug carriers and diagnostic agent due to their predominantly distinctive set of physical, chemical and photonic properties. A multifunctional platform based on gold nanoparticles, with multiple receptor targeting, multimodality imaging, and multiple therapeutic entities, holds the promise for "Magic Gold Bullet" against cancer. Gold nanospheres, nanorods, nanoshells, nanocages and surface enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticle will be used. Gold nanoparticles are important components for biomedical application. And have seen increasing use in the area of therapeutics. Nanotechnologies can be defined as the design, characterization, production and application of structures, devices and system by controlling shape and size at a nanometer scale. The most studied nanoparticles are carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles and cadmium selenide quantum dots.


ALGAE AS BIOFUEL
Borkhatariya Manisha A. & Borkhatariya Shilpa N.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
bhai63523@gmail.com & sborkhatriya80225@gmail.com

Biofuel is type of fuel whose energy is derived from biological carbon fixation. It is derived from biomass of plant or algae material or animal waste. Biofuel is considered to be a source of renewable energy, unlike fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal and natural gas. The contribution made by fossil fuels to global warming. The global warming gas such as carbon dioxide can be used by algae as a carbon source and produced algal biomass. It is used for various biofuel product such as biodiesel, syngas, biogas, bioethanol. Algae biofuel is very promising candidate to replace fossil fuel. The importance of algae has increased with the search for renewable energy sources. Algae can thrive and produced valuable by product lipids such as triacylglycerides (TAGs),carbohydrate, protein and various feedstocks that can be converted into biofuels and other useful materials. Algae based biofuel production has number of potential advantages because algae have a rapid growth rate can be cultivated in brackish costal water and seawater and algae can used carbon dioxide from industrial source. The production of algal biomass using the open pond and closed photo bioreactor system and its cost effectiveness for the commercial production of biofuel. Algae based fuel production acceptable from both economic and environmental point of view.


BIOPLASTIC FROM FOOD WASTE
Tilva Rashi P. & Borkhatariya Bansi H.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
tilvaparth3770@gmail.com

Bioplastic are a form of plastics derived from renewable biomass source , like vegetable fats & oils, corn starch ,peas starch or waste food. Bioplastic were directly obtained from edible vegetable cereal waste. Bioplastic Produced from waste food can create positive synergies between industry and the agro - food sector. Two areas generally distant from one another. There is an enormous variety of vegetable waste that can be create biopolymers. Bioplastic from waste food thus, not required other raw materials because waste food also using as raw materials. Bioplastic are suitable for a broad range of end - of - life options, including reuse, mechanical recycling, organic recycling, and energy recovery. Bioplastics product such as bags, food packaging, cutlery strengthens, mobile phone casings, carpet fibers,insulation car interiors, fuel lines, industrial composting as a waste management option & helps to increase waste management efficiency. If bioplastics cannot longer be reused, it is although possible to use them in the production of bio - energy. Bioplastics are designed to biodegrade can break down in either anaerobic/aerobic environments, because the emission of less carbon dioxide, altimetly reduce cause of "global warming". They are also biodegradable, recycling them takes much less energy. Other environmental impact of bioplastic include terrestrial ecotoxicity and carcinogenic potentials compared to conventional plastics.


BACTERIA HALTS GROWTH OF SUPERBUGS : NEW HOPE FOR TACKLING ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
Jadav Anjali S. & Ponkiya Riddhi K.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
anjali.anu.aj.1997@gmail.com & ponkiyariddhi2@gmail.com

Superbugs are resistance to the commonly used antibiotic. The world health organization (WHO) described the problem as one of the biggest threats to global health, food security. Antibiotic resistance superbugs kill up millions of people in many countries. Researchers found new antibiotic from soil in the area of N.Ireland. Scientist isolates a novel Streptomyces spp. Capable of growth at high alkaline PH and tolerant gamma radiation. Streptomyces spp. Myrophorea, isolate MCG1, inhibit the growth of superbugs; most notably carbapenem - resistance Acenatobacter banumannil, vancomycin resistance staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobial resistance is a major, global health issue. The rate at which bacteria are becoming resistance to antibiotic treatment has significantly increase. So it is challenging for physicians in treatment.


BIOFUEL PRODUCTION FROM JATROPHA
Zala Falguni L. & Dobariya Nikunj P.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
falu0015@gmail.com & Nikunjdobariya1999@gmail.com

Jatropha ( Jatropha curcas ) has become one of the most important species for producing biofuels. Jatropha curcas is a wild plant whose parts offer a viable and sustainable alternative in various application. The oil yield of Jatropha seed and the biodiesel output of the oil were studied in order to know the productivity of the oil. Energy play an important role in the development of any nation. But with the present rate of consumption. Conventional sources of energy like natural gas and petroleum will be exhausted shortly. Biodiesel has gained worldwide popularity as an alternative energy source due to its renewable, non - toxic, biodegradable and non - flammable properties. Biodiesel can be use either in pure form or blended with conventional petrodiesel in auto mobile without any major engine modifications. Among the non - edible oils , such as pongamia, Argemone and castor, Jatropha curcas has tremendous potential for biodiesel production. The role of different catalysts on transesterification, the current state - of - the - art in biodiesel production. The process control and future potential improvement of biodiesel production from Jatropha Curcas.


GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANTS FROM HOME AIR CLEANING
Akabari Foram P.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
akabariforam009@gmail.com

The indoor air in urban homes of developed countries usually contaminated with significant levels of volatile organic carcinogens (VOCs), such as formaldehyde, benzene, and chloroform. There is a needed for a practical sustainable technology for the removal of VOCs in homes. Genetically modified plant has sufficient detoxifying activity against benzene and chloroform to suggest that biofilters using transgenic plants could remove VOCs from home air at useful rates. Researchers at the University of Washington have genetically modified a common house plant to remove chloroform and benzene from the air around it. Some hazardous compounds are too small to be trapped in these filters. Small molecules like chloroform, which is present in small amounts in chlorinated water, or benzene, which is a component of gasoline build up in our homes when we shower or boil water, or when we store cars or lawn mowers in attached garages. Both benzene and chloroform exposure have been linked to cancer. Which is present in all mammals, including humans. In our bodies, 2E1 turns benzene into a chemical called phenol and chloroform into Carbon dioxide ions. But 2E1 is located in our livers and is turned on when drink alcohol. So it is not available to help us process pollutants in our air.


GREEN ROOFS: RAISIN THE ROOF ON URBAN SUSTAINABILITY
Dodiya Anupa K. & Gauswami Reena D.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
dodiyakarshan1999@gmail.com & goswamireena7399@gmail.com

Green roofs are living system that extension of a roof. It heralded as a "Sustainable building practice" in cites to overcome environmental stresses. A green roof system contains a high quality waterproofing membrane and root barrier. It particularly effective in reducing heat entry into the building in the summer. It can provide secured growing space for gardening and agriculture in urban areas, life cycle costing indicates that green roofs cost the same or less than conventional roofing and they are an investment which provides a significant number of social, environmental and economic benefits that are both public and private in nature. As relatively small, simple, anthropogenic ecosystems, green roofs relate to several existing conceptual and applied ecological ideas. Understanding and applying from ecology and ecosystem studies, ecological engineering, managed ecosystems, construction ecology, urban ecology, landscape ecology, restoration ecology, soli ecology and community ecology show green roof ecosystems can be created to cycle energy and nutrients.


APLASTIC ANEMIA
Dudhatra Riddhi V.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
ridhidudhatra100@gmail.com

Aplastic anemia is a rare haemopoietic stem cell disorder that results in pancytopenia and hypocellular bone marrow. Blood cell counts are extremely low and the bone marrow appears empty. Environmental exposure, such as to drugs, viruses, toxins are thought to trigger aberrant immune response and lead to feelling tired, pale skin and fast heart beat. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (BMT) is treatment of choise for young patitent who have matched sibling donor. The pathophysiology of aplastic anemia is belived to be immune mediated with active destruction of blood forming cells by lymphocytes. Aplstic anemia can be treated by stem cell transplation.


DRUGS, BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR : THE SCIENCE OF ADDICTION
Sata Mansi D. & Kakrecha Darshana H.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
mnssata@gmail.com & dkukakrecha0706@gmail.com

Addiction is a lot like other diseases, such as heart disease. Both disrupt the normal, healthy functioning organ. Addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disease. It is considered a brain disease because drug change brain, its structure and its work. It can be long - lasting and lead to harmful behaviors. Addiction is most commonly associated with drugs, alcohol and nicotine. Drugs are chemicals that affect the brain by tapping into its communication system and interfering with way neurons normally send, receive and process information. Most drugs directly or indirectly target brain's reward system by flooding the circuit with dopamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter present in regions of the brain that regulate movement, emotion, motivation and feeling or pleasure. Addiction is a treatable disease. Research in the science of addiction and the treatment of substance use disorders has led to the development of evidence - based interventions that help people stop abusing drugs and resume productive lives.


PHOTOS IVY AS BIOFILTER
Kathiriya Juli P. & Sureja Shivani K.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
julikathiriya8013@gmail.com & shivanisureja1220@gmail.com

The indoor air in urban homes of developed countries is usually contaminated with significant levels of volatile organic carcinogens (VOCs), such as formaldehyde, benzene, and chloroform. These toxins come from many sources, including cooking, showering, furniture and smoking. House plants can remove some toxins from the air, but they aren't very efficient. There is a need for a practical, sustainable technology for the removal of VOCs in homes. Here we show that a detoxifying transgene, mammalian cytochrome P450 2e1 can be expressed in a houseplant, Epipremnum aureum, photos ivy, and that the resulting genetically modified plant has sufficient detoxifying activity against benzene and chloroform to suggest that biofilters using transgenic plants could remove VOCs from home air at useful rates. The modified express a protein, called 2E1,that transforms these compounds into molecules that the plant can then use to support their own growth.


NOISE POLLUTION UNDER OCEAN
Parmar Vaidehi D. & Kachhot Disha K.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
parmarvaidehi193@gmail.com & dishakachot196@gmail.com

With the growing utilization and exploration of the ocean, anthropogenic noise increase significantly and gives rise to a new kind of pollution: noise pollution. In general, the studies about the impact of ship generate noise through their propellers, motor, and gears of on marine organisms are mainly on adult fish and mammals, which account for more than 50% and 20% of all the cases reported. Sound has a large potential area of impact, sometimes covering millions of square kilometers of ocean with level high enough to cause possible disturbance in marine mammals. Observed effects of noise on marine mammals include: change in vocalization, respiration, swim speed, diving and foraging behavior, displacement, avoidance, shifts in migration path, hearing damage and standings. Anatomical impacts from noise involve massive internal injuries, cellular damage to statocysts and neurons, causing disorientation and even death and hearing loss. The propellers, generating noise directly in water, represent one of the main contribution to the overall underwater noise emitted from ships.


PLASTIC DEGRADING BACTERIA
Vekariya Nidhi A. & Savaliya Dharti D.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
nidhivekariya22@gmail.com & dharti2u@gmail.com

Plastic have become an important part of modern life and used in different sectors of applications like packaging, building materials, consumer products and much more. Each year about 100 million tons of plastic are produced worldwide. Lack of degradability and the closing of landfill sites as well as growing water and land pollution problems have led to concern about plastic. Degradation is defined as reduction the in the molecular weight of the polymer. Biodegradation is defined as reduction in the molecular weight by naturally occurring microorganisms like bacteria. Screening polyethylene synthetic degrading bacteria from soil sample has been conducted. That is involved in the degradation of both natural and synthetic plastics. The interest in environment problems is growing and there are increasing demand to develop material which do not burden the environment significantly.


BENEFICIAL ROLE OF COW EXCRETION
Barad Vandana B. & Zankat Devsmita V.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
v.b.barad7096@gmail.com & devrajput30420@gmail.com

Cow excretion that is cow dung and cow urine. These both are an excreta of bovine animal, are a cheap and easily available bio resource on our planet. The cow dung is composed of organic materials, inorganic materials, high amount of ammonia, etc. And cow urine is made up of minerals, salts, hormones, enzymes, cytokines, urea, sugars, etc. Nowadays widely uses of chemically synthetic products, they cause many side effect to human and animals and also creats an environmental pollution. Because of these reasons natural product, cow dung and cow urine are used in various places in traditional Indian culture. Many researchers have also be done, which shows that this cow excretion used for the treatment of skin, liver, stomach, kidney, heart, etc diseases, as a fuel, as biopesticides, , as an immunostimulant , as a thermal insulator, as a manure, as a disinfectants, used for sustainable development, production of biogas to engender electricity, for the removal of mosquitoses, etc. These both also have antimicrobial, antifungal as well as anticancer properties. Public awareness is requiring, as an Immunostimulant to promote the importance and wide application of cow dung and urine to improve their health and lifestyle.


NANO ROBOTS: USED IN CANCER THERAPIES
Dave Chandani C.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
daveyash29@gmail.com

Nowadays medical science is more and more improving with the blessings of new scientific discoveries. Nano technology is such a field which is changing vision of medical science. Nano robot is excellent tool for future medicine. Some in chemotherapy treatment the traditional treatment of radiation that kills not just cancer cells but healthy human cells as well as causing hair loss, fatigue, nausea, depression, and a host of other symptoms. But doctor practicing nano medicine would offer the patient an injection of a special type of nano robots are injected into the patient's body that destroy only cancer cells without harming healthy cells. This has proved to be a better approach towards cancer treatment. Nano robots are programmable nano electro mechanical system (NEMS) constructed by micro/macro devices whose componentsare at or close to the scale of a nano meter (10 - 9 meters) for specific task at nano scale dimension. Types of nano robots: Respirocyte (Artificial Oxygen Carrier), chromallocyte (Cell - Repair Nano robots ), Clottocytes (Artificial mechanical platelets), Pharmacytes (Nano robotic pharmaceutical drug delivery device).So ultimately concluded that nano robots are very much useful to us.


LYME DISEASE
Desai Sadhana B. & Kher Ila A.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
desaisadhana96@gmail.com

Since its identification nearly 30 years ago, Lyme disease has continued to spread, and there have been increasing numbers of cases in the northeastern and north central US. The Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, causes infection by migration through tissue, adhesion to host cell, and evasion of immune clearance. Both innate and adaptive immune responses, especially macrophage - and antibody - mediated killing, are required for optimal control of the infection and spirochetal eradication. Ecological condition favourable to the disease, and the challenge of prevention, predict that Lyme disease will be a continuing public health concern. In the late 20th century, Lyme borreliosis (arthropod borne illness) most commonly reported in the US and Europe and in Asia also. In 1981, Burgdorfer and colleagues discovered a previously unidentified spirochetal bacterium, called Borrelia burgdorferi, in a nymphal Ixodes scapularis (also called Ixodes dammini) tick. The initial infection of LD may diagnosed from the evidence of tick bite, not from blood, it may give false result within the 1 month of infection. If early symptoms are undetected then ELISA or Western - blot tests may use. Treatment can be done by vaccination, antibiotics like tetracycline & beta - lactam.


MOBILE PHONE RADIATION EFFECT ON HUMAN HEALTH
Chovatiya Darshal A. & Devani Sweta A.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
darshalpatel505@gmail.com & swetadevani901@gmail.com

Nowadays mobile phones are becoming and elementary of our life. This is one of the most important medium for the communication. And for multipurpose like voice call, video call, browsing, facebook, whatsapp, online shopping, chatting, listening music, etc. according to survey, the cell phone is 95% more usable device for then other gadgets. Researcher has been found that the usage of a cell phone is more than 16 hrs a day. The development of cell phone technology has caused biological effect on human. The cell phone emits the microwave radiation that are dangerous to different part of human body like brain, heart, eyes, ear, etc. the human body contains 70% of water and due to that it cause several effects. Like non - thermal DNA breakage, it also affects human sperm motility. Cell phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species which can leading to cancer, and decrease the brain glucose metabolism.


ENERGY PRODUCTION FROM PLASTIC WASTE
Vaghasiya Charmi B. & Rola Gunjan S.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
gunjanrola@gmail.com & charmi283011@gmail.com

The waste plastic generated in India is 15000 tons per day. The waste plastic affects the human, animals, bird, earth and environment also. For dissolving plastic may require around 500 years in the earth. Every year 65% waste plastic is deposit as land filled or in natural environment which is very harmful. The technology is used to dissolve these all type waste plastic is pyrolysis. In pyrolysis process substance is heated in the absence of oxygen. In this process 4300c temperature needed. The all type of waste plastic is converting to fuel. By implementing this concept can be reduced 80 - 90% of waste plastic. The fuel does not emit sulphur dioxide. It increases machine efficiency.


RECENT ADVANCE IN NEXT GENERATION SNAKEBITE ANTIVENOMS
Vaja Hardik M. & Bloch Ehmadkhan A.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
blochehmadkhan147@gmail.com & hardikvaja848@gmail.com

With the inclusion of snakebite envenoming on the World Health Organization's list of Neglected Tropical Diseases, an incentive has been established to promote research and development effort in novel snakebite antivenom therapies. Various technological approaches are being pursued by different research groups, including the use of small molecule inhibitors against enzymatic toxins as well as peptide - and oligonucleotide - based aptamers and antibody - based biotherapeutics against both enzymatic and non - enzymatic toxins. . In this article, the most recent advances in these fields are presented, and the advantages, disadvantages, and feasibility of using different toxin - neutralizing molecules are reviewed. Particular focus within small molecules is directed towards the inhibitors varespladib, batimastat, and marimastat, while in the field of antibody - based therapies, novel recombinant polyclonal plantivenom technology is discussed.


EDIBLE VACCINES AND IMMUNIZATION
Solanki Nisha M.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
solankinisha38@gmail.com

Edible vaccines offer cost - effective, easily administrable, storable and widely acceptable as bio friendly particularly in developing countries. Oral administration of edible vaccines proves to be promising agents for reducing the incidence of various diseases like hepatitis and diarrhea especially in the developing world, which face the problem of storing and administering vaccines. Edible vaccines are obtained by incorporating a particular gene of interest into the plant, which produces the desirable encoded protein. Edible vaccines are specific to provide mucosal activity along with systemic immunity. Various foods that are used as alternative agents for injectable vaccines include cereals (wheat, rice, corn) fruits (bananas) and vegetables (lettuce, potatoes, tomatoes). Thus, edible vaccines overcome all the problems associated with traditional vaccines and prove to be best substitutes to traditional vaccines.


ELECTRICITY GENERATING BIONIC MUSHROOMS
Vadher Mital R.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
mitalvadher33@gmail.com

A mushrooms is the fleshy, spore bearing Fruiting body of a Fungus, They Produced small amount of electricity And in a More use a Food source. But new discovery of over indian scientist electricity generating Bionic mushrooms new Technology and useful systems is used a health and environment, So Indian origin stevens Institute of Technology in the created a bionic device, They generates green power by 3D printing clusters of cyanobacteria on an ordinary white bottom mushroom. Surface of mushroom present cyanobacteria. They producing electricity now small amount of electricity produced but researchs are trying to produce more amount of electricity It is The main AIM to generate electricity.


AUTOPHAGY
Bharada Bhumika C. & Thummar Nirali L.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
niralithummar111@gmail.com

Autophagy is a self - digesting mechanism responsible for removal of damaged organelles, malformed proteins during biosynthesis, and non - functional long - lived proteins by lysosome. Autophagy has been divided into three general types depending on the mechanism by which intracellular materials are delivered into lysosome for degradation that is, microautophagy, chaperone - mediated autophagy (CMA), and macroautophagy. In microautophagy cytoplasm material is sequestered through direct invagination to the lysosomal membrane. Whereas in CMA proteins flagged with pentapeptide motif (KFERQ) were selectively degraded through direct translocation into lysosome. Macroautophagy involves the formation of subcellular double - membrane - bound structure called autophagosomes that contain degradable contents of cytoplasm material and deliver them into lysosomes for breakdown by lysosomal enzymes. The molecular mechanism of autophagy involves several conserved Atg (autophagy - related) proteins. System produce modified complexes Atg8 - PE and Atg5 - Atg12 - Atg16 as autophagy regulators. Autophagy is activated in response to divers stress and physiological conditions. For example, food deprivation, hyperthermiaand hypoxia are mediated by factors like insulin/IGF - 1, m - TOR signalling, FOXO transcriptional factors, and chaperones. The perturbance in autophagy may lead to several types of cancers, myopathies, and neuromuscular disorders. Several autophagy inducers and inhibitors like 3 - methyladenine(3 - MA), bafilomicin A1, LY294002(LY), and velcade have been used to treat disease is an intense field of study.


PALM VEIN TECHNOLOGY
Godhani Foram M. & Radadiya Pooja M.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
foramgodhani1220@gmail.com & Poojaradadiya1220@gmail.com

Palm vein technologies are one of the up coming technologies which is highly secure. It is the world's first contactless personal identification system that uses the vein patterns in human palms to confirm a person's identity. It is highly secure because it uses information contained within the body and is also highly accurate because the pattern of veins in the palm is complex and unique to each individual. Moreover, its contact less feature gives it a hygienic advantage over other biometric authentication technologies. The palm secure works by capturing a person's vein pattern image while radiating it with near - infrared rays. The Palm , detects the structure of the pattern of veins on the palm of the human hand with the utmost precision.The scanning process is extremely fast and does not involve any contact meaning that Palm Secure meets the stringent hygienic requirements that are normally necessary for use in public environments. The opportunities to implement palm secure span a wide range of vertical markets, including security, financial/banking, healthcare, commercial enterprises and educational facilities. Applications for the device include physical admission into secured areas; log - in to PCs or server systems; access to POS, ATMs or kiosks; positive ID control; and other industry - specific applications.


PAPAIN, A PLANT ENZYME OF BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE
Kikani Richa K. & Raiyani Bhumi K.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
ruchitakikani.99@gmail.com & bhumiraiyani189@gmail.com

Papain is a plant proteolytic enzyme for the cysteine proteinase family cysteine protease enzyme in which enormous progress has been made to understand its functions. Papain is found naturally in papaya (Carica papaya L.) manufactured from the latex of raw papaya fruits. papain enzyme used as a meat tenderizer and as a stabilizing agent in the brewing industry is recoverd from the latex of papaya fruit. The enzyme is able to break down organic molecules made of amino acids, known as polypeptides and thus plays a crucial role in diverse biological processes in physiological and pathological states, drug designs, industrial uses such as meat tenderizers and pharmaceutical preparations. The unique structure of papain gives it the functionality that helps elucidate how proteoltic enzymes work and also makes it valuable for a variety of purposes. The use of metering technology and water treatment solutions may vary considerably depending on the industry and application.


HERBAL SMOKING
Lila Surbhi B. & Rupareliya Rakshita A.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
lilasurbhi211@gmail.com & rakshitarupareliya@gmail.com

Herbal smoking is an nicotine free smoking.It do not contain any tobacco instead being composed of a mixture of various herbs or other plant material.Herbal cigarettes can carry carcinogens which can have health implications.There's something fascinating about the alchemy of herbs and smoke. Part of it is visual. We can see the plants undergoing a violent physical change as they are transformed into smoke and ash. It's also something that we can experience as we breathe in. The smoke has a taste and a texture, and it resonates with us at an emotional and physical level. We resonate with it as well.There are over 1500 plants which are use in herbal smoking. Herbal cigarettes have their own set of health risks along with several benefits as compared to tobacco ones. However, it is important for you to know that cigarettes, both tobacco and herbal can prove dangerous to your health in the long run and are best avoided if you can give up smoking completely. If you are simply unable to give up tobacco cigarettes then herbal cigars are definitely a healthier option but it is also necessary to understand that along with benefits of smoking herbal cigar come the herbal cigarette health risks.


TOOTH : AN IMPORTANT SOURCE OF DNA IN FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY
Vora Mansi R. & Vikani Happy J.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
voramansi866@gmail.com & vikanihappy@gmail.com

The recent advances in DNA profiling have made DNA evidence to be more widly accepted in courts. This has revolutionized the aspect of forensic odontology.forensic odontology a branch of forensic science uses the skill of the dentist in personal identification. DNA profiling/DNA fingerprinting has come a long way from the conventional fingerprint. When other means of traditional identification become impossible following mass calamities , fire explosions and sexual assault ,teeth provide a rich source of DNAas they have a high chemical as well as physical resistance.the recent evolution in the isolation of DNA &the way of running a DNA fingerprint this method is widly used.


SWINE FLU
Kamani Krishna V. & Maheta Reena D.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
reenamaheta12@gmail.com & krishnakamani1234@gmail.com

The currently circulating strain of swine origin influenza of the H1N1 strain has undergone triple assortment and contains genes from avian, swine, human viruses. The laboratory reported that H1N1 is transmitted from human to human. It is transmitted by droplets or fomites.H1N1 requires 2 to 7 days for incubation period in host. The common symptoms are fever, cough, sore throat and myalgia (muscle pain from mild to severe).The epidemic of influenza is observed in younger than five years, elders and pregnant women. Diagnosis can be done through RT PCR, rise in antibody titer, Viral culture. Antiviral drug effectively combat H1N1 Virus include: Oseltamivir and Zamanavir. The fatality rate is less than 1% in patients of swine flu. At present H1N1 vaccine is not available, but will be available in near future.


BIOFUEL: A FUTURE ALTERNATIVE OF FOSSIL FUEL
Butani Pinali M. & Makvana Jyoti R.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
butani.pinali998@gmail.com

Biomass a renewable resource, whose utilization has received a great attention due to environmental consideration and the increasing demand for energy world wide. Biofuel is a fuel which is produced mainly by fermentation and combustion. The most important biomass energy sources are wood and wood wastes, agriculture crops, municipal solid waste, animal waste, waste from food processes and aquatic plant and algae. Biofuels by algae may provide possible alternative to fossil fuels like petroleum sourced fuels. Biofuels can be directly from plants, from agriculture, commercial, domestic, or industrial waste and can be used as fuel, power generation. The yield is much more advantageous as have cost benefits, renewable, lower emissions, easy to source. Biofuel is a renewable source of energy because emissions produced on its combustion are again used in its formation. Biomasses are much more efficient as they are not exported and can be produced easily from any type of biomass. This poster includes or reviews about biofuels, with their production, types, applications of biofuels and ways to make biofuel production economically available.


USEFULLNESS OF ALGAE AS MEDICINE TO OUR SOCIETY
Monpara Shruti H. & Amipara Swati J.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
amiparaswati@gmail.com & sheryamonpara1999@gmail.com

Algae are a very large and diverse group of autotrophic organism which ranges from unicellular to multicellular forms. the most complex marines forms are called seaweeds. Certain beverages are prepared from sea algae. They are primary producers which are a source of many nutrients and it has high protein content. Blue green algae, red algae, green algae assigned higher content of dietary fibres. Mainly marine algae have been used as medicine for many centuries. They are not only used as medicine but also used as extracts in food, dairy, cosmetics, and industrial uses. Algae are used as one of important medical source due to its antioxidant, anticancer, antiviral properties. Therapeutic properties of algae are used for promotion of health. Edible algae are recognized as complete medicines as well as foods which provide correct balance of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals.


RUBELLA VACCINE
Fadadu Priya J.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
priyafadadu22@gmail.com

The Rubella are serious disease caused by Toga virus (RNA virus). They are spread from person to person through the air. The common symptoms of Rubella is such as skin rash, cough, fever, joint pain and headache. The Rubella vaccine is a mixture of live attenuated viruses, administered via injection for immunization against Rubella. The first dose is generally given to children around 9 to 15 months to 6 year of age and adult. After two dose 97% of people are protected against Rubella. Like any vaccine rubella vaccine may not provide protection from disease in every person. The Rubella vaccine is not recommended during pregnancy, minor cold and other chronic illness. Some side effects like problem with hearing or vision, unusual weakness may cause. Rubella vaccine is stable when stored between 2 degree to 8 degree Celsius. Rubella should be always reconstituted with diluents supplied from the same manufacturer.


BIONIC MUSHROOMS
Jani Nidhi D. & Jalu Shital M.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
ndh479@gmail.com & jalushital101@gmail.com

Investigating the multidimensional integration between different microbiological kingdoms possesses potential toward engineering next generation bionic architecture. A bionic mushroom was created by intertwining cyanobacterial cells with graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) on to the umbrella -shaped pileus of mushroom for photosynthetic bioelectricity generation. These seamlessly merged GNRs function as agents for mediating extracellular electron transport from cyanobacteria resulting in photocurrent generation. Additionally, three - dimensional (3D) printing technique was used two assemble cyanobacterial cells in anisotropic, densely packed geometry resulting in adequate cell - population density for efficient collective behavior. These3D printed cyanobacterial colonies resulted in comparatively higher photocurrent (almost 8 - fold increase) than isotropically casted cyanobacteria of similar seeding density. An insight of the proposed integration between cyanobacteria and mushroom derives remarkable advantage that arises from symbiotic relationship, termed here as engineered bionic symbiosis. Existence of this engineered bionic symbiosis was confirmed by UV - visible spectroscopy and standard plate counting method. Taken together, the present study augments scientific understanding the living biological microworld and functional abiotic nanomaterials to establish newer dimensionalities toward advancement of bacterial nanobionics.


DEINOCOCCUS RADIODURANS : CAN COMBATE HEAVY RADIATIONS?
Joshi Shivani L. & Vachhani Nevi R.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
shivujoshi98@gmail.com & nevivachhani77@gmail.com

The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is a champion of extreme radiation resistance which are World's toughest bacterium. Deinococcus radiodurans in exponential phase can withstand 5000 - Gray dose of ? radiation. Cell having gram positive cell strain and gram negative cell wall which is easily cultured and do not cause any disease in human. However, the recent reports indicate that this species compensates for extensive DNA damage though adaptations that allow cells to avoid the potentially determined effect of DNA strand breaks. It uses mechanism that limit DNA degradation and that restrict the diffusion of DNA fragment that are produced following irradiation to preserve genetic integrate. D. radiodurans is extremely resistant to many DNA - damaging agents, including ionizing radiation and UV radiation (100 to 295 nm), desiccation and mitomycin C, which induce oxidative damage not only to DNA but also to all cellular macromolecules via the production of reactive oxygen species. The extreme resilience of D. radiodurans to oxidative stress is imparted synergistically by an efficient protection of proteins against oxidative stress and an efficient DNA repair mechanism enhanced by functional redundancies in both systems.


MICROBIAL FUEL CELL
Kathiriya Nirali M. & Vadher Riddhi B.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
nnirali996@gmail.com & riddhivadher64@gmail.com

Environmental protection and energy crisis are two recent challenges to us. Future economic growth importantly depends on the long - term availability of energy from sources that are reasonable, available and eco - friendly. Bio electrochemical systems (BESs) have recently emerged as an exciting technology. BESs, bacteria interact with electrode using electrons, which are either removed or supplied through an electrical circuit. Type of Bio electrochemical system is Microbial Fuel Cell. Microbial Fuel Cells are devices in that use bacteria as a catalyst to oxidize organic and inorganic matters. Electrons produced by bacteria from their substrate and electron transfer anode to cathode linked by resistor and generate electricity. MFCs used in environmental engineering, ranging from microbiology and electrochemistry to material. Many MFCs types used. MFCs used in electricity production, gas production, waste water treatment, in space and removal of COD and other field. In MFC through generate power and these power densities are high value. So MFC is highly valuable for electricity production.


ANTIMICROBIL ACTIVITY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS
Kuvariya Yarchana D. & Panara Riya J.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
yarchanakuvariya2509@gmail.com & riyap4907@gmail.com

Medicinal plants are important source of potentially useful structures for the development of different chemotherapeutic agents. Medicinal Plants have been used for thousands of years to flavor and also used as conserve food, to treat health disorders and to prevent diseases. plants have provided a source of the development for drugs. which have made large contributions to human health. Now a day's very few plants have been scientifically proved by different researchers for their medicinal potential. The renewal of medicinal potential of such plants is thus strongly needed. Several researchers have carried out bioassay for antimicrobial activities of different extracts of medicinal plants. Active compounds produced during secondary vegetal metabolism are usually responsible for the biological properties of some plant species used throughout the globe for various purpose, including treatment of infectious diseases. The screening of plants involves several approach; ethno botanical approach is one of the common methods that are employed in choosing the plant for pharmacological study.


EXTENSIVELY DRUG RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS
Jarsaniya Arjuben P. & Maradiya Drashtiben B.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
jarjup1998@gmail.com & drashti.maradiya8@gmail.com

Emergence of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR - TB) has been reported by more than 55 Countries.XDR - TB is considered as Untretable and highly fatal Disease.In developing countries like India, number of cases of multi - drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR - TB) and XDR - TB are Increasing.Emergence of resistance to Isoniazid and Rifampicin, the two most effective and well tolerated agents, Coupied with resistance to second line agents pose limited treatment option for XDR - TB.They were also resistant to at least three of the second line of drug like Amikacin,Kenamycin and capreomycin. although considered a fatal Disorder,Judicious use of combination of drugs,retaining their Antimycobacterial activity, can improve the clinical outcome of XDR - TB. only such an Approch can provide some hope for the patients of XDR - TB.


PURPLE BACTERIA "BATTERIES" TURN SEWAGE INTO CLEAN ENERGY
Pansuriya Kinjal K. & Sardhara Ruku M.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
kinjalpansuria20@gmail.com & rukupatel99@gmail.com

Organic compounds in household sewage and industrial wastewater are a rich potential source of energy, bioplastics and even proteins of animal feed but with no efficient extraction method, treatment plants discard them as contaminants. Now researchers have found an environmentally - friendly and cost - effective solution. Purple photosynthetic bacteria(PPB) which can store energy from light, when supplied with an electric current can recover near to 100% of carbon from any type of organic waste, while generating hydrogen gas for electricity production. One of the most important problems of current wastewater treatment plants is high carbon emission, But our light - based biorefinrey process could provide a means to harvest green energy from wastewater, with zero carbon footprint.


PAPER BATTERY POWERED BY BACTERIA
Parmar Nimisha H. & Davara Neha D.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
nimishap2016@gmail.com & nehadavara123@gmail.com

In remote areas of the world or in region having limited resources, electrical items and batteries are luxuries. Health care areas often lack electricity to power diagnostic device and commercial batteries may be too expensive or unavailable. Researchers have created a paper battery which is having low cost, sustainability, eco - friendly and it is disposable diagnostic device, using a type of bacteria called exoelectrogens that could overcome these challenges. To create the battery, freeze dried "Exoelectrogen" were used on paper. This bacteria specifically forms biofilm on anode surface. The electrons transfer outside their cells and pass through the cell membrane and make contact with external electrodes to power the battery. The battery was capable of generating power from microbial metabolism using one drop of bacteria containing liquid derived from renewable and waste water sources or saliva. The paper battery currently has a shelf life of about 4 months. According to S.choi, Paper has unique advantages as a material for biosensors because it has characters like flexibility, disposable and high surface area. However, sophisticated sensors require power supply. Commercial batteries are expensive so they can't be integrated into paper substrate which could be achieved by connecting multiple paper batteries.


MICROORGANISM ACT AS HEROES OF OILSPILLS DEGRADATION
Suvagiya Dhruvi K. & Mandaliya Riddhi R.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
dhruvisuvagiya2610@gmail.com & riddhimandaliya2810@gmail.com

Hydrocarbons are important energy resources. However, Hydrocarbons act as major pollutants of the environment. Contamination by oil and oil products causes serious harm to living systems, and increasing attention has been paid to the development and implementation of innovative technology. For the removal of these contaminations biosurfectants have been extensively used. The main stages of the oil production chain such as extraction, transportation and storage of hydrocarbons causes water and land pollution. Pollution in marine ecosystem occurs mainly by accidental oil spills, deliberate discharge of ballast waters from oil tankers and bilge waste discharges; causing site pollution and serious adverse effects on aquatic environment as well as human health. A large numbers of petroleum hydrocarbons are biodegradable,thus bioremediation has become an important method for the restoration of oil polluted areas. A series of natural attenuation, crude oil bioremediation experiments can be carried out by numbers of microorganism like Actinobacteria spp., Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Vibrio. Under abiotic conditions, oil removal was found out to be 19.9% while a maximum of 31.8% total petroleum hydrocarbons removal was obtained is natural attenuation experiments. This study highlights the insights of oil spill risk managements in the sea and provides solution in order to minimize the risk.


MICROBIAL FUEL CELL
Kher Riddhi R. & Mori Nirupa A.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
kherriddhi09020@gmail.com & nirupamori1699@gmail.com

Microbial fuel cell (MFCs) are bio electrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy into electric current by using microorganisms. In this technology microorganisms is used as catalyst and organic and inorganic compounds used as sources of chemical energy. MFCs are of different types, the basic designs used in the laboratory include double - chamber MFC, single - chamber MFC, up flow MFC and stacked MFC. MFCs are operated at the optimized parameters such as thermophilic temperatures neutral pH, etc. The type of electrode materials and proton exchange membrane (PEM) used in MFCs as most important role for different applications such as bio electricity generation, waste water treatment, bioremediation of toxic compounds, by hydrogen production and bio sensors. Few marine sediment MFCs have been used practically, providing current for law power device. MFCs provide a promising low cost, highly efficient and renewable energy producing alternative to conventional waste water treatment. To further improve MFC technology an understanding of limitations and microbiology of these system is required. We conclude that for further development of MFC application, a greater focus or understanding the Microbial processes in MFC system is required.


THIRD GENERATION OF BIOFUEL FROM MICROALGE
Chorvada Nitika S. & Vaghela Neha P.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
chorvadanitika@gmail.com & nehavaghela13@gmail.com

The use of liquid fossil fuel as an energy source has long been considered unsustainable and most importantly the liquid fossil fuel will be diminished by the middle of this century. In addition, the fossil fuel is directly related to environmental Degredation and greenhouse emission. Biofuel produced from plants, animal fat or algae products can offer an alternative to reduce our dependency on fossil fuel and assist to maintain healthy global environment. Microalgae is becoming popular candidate for biofuel production of cultivation and rapid growth rate. Microalgae used to produce bioenergy such as biogas, biodiesel and biooil. Microalgae produced over 20 times biooil. An acre of algae can produce almost 5000 gallons of biodiesel.


ENDOPHYTIC MICROORGANISM
Pandya Jahanvi T. & Dhorajiya Vasanti M.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
jahanvitpandya@gmail.com & Vasantidhorajiya1998@gmail.com

Plant endophytes means an organism that colonize in internal parts of plant without causing any disease in plant and live symbiotically with plants. Endophytes are in a particular plant host are not limited to a single species but comprise several genera and species. Endophytic fungi or bacteria are isolated from different parts of plant. The capability of colonizing internal host tissues has made endophytes valuable for agriculture crop performance. Endophytes produce natural bioactive compound like antibiotics which are useful for protection of plant from insects. The intimate relationship between endophytic bacteria and their host involves co - evolutionary process and may influence the physiological mechanisms of the plant.


NEXT GENERATION DNA SEQUENCING
Kagathara Sonaliben M. & Chavda Dharaben V.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
kagatharasonali21@gmail.com & Dharachavda2542@gmail.com

Next - generation sequencing (NGS) technologies using DNA, RNA, or methylation sequencing have impacted in ormously on the life sciences. NGS is the choice for large - scale genomic and transcirptomic sequencing because of the high through put production and outputs of sequencing data in giga base range per Instrument run and the lower cost compared to the traditional Sanger first generation sequencing method. The vast amounts of data generated by NGS have broadened our understanding of structural and functional genomics through the concepts of "omics" ranging from basic genomics to in targeted systomics ,providing new insight into The workings and meaning of genetic conservation and diversity of living things.NGS today is more than ever about how different organisms use genetics information and molecular biology to survive and reproduce with and without mutations, disease, and diversity within their population network and changing environments. In this study, the advances, applications, challenges of NGS are reviewed starting with a history of first generation sequences followed by the major NGS platforms, the bioinformatics issues confronting NGS data storage and analysis, and the impacts made in the Fields of genetics, biology, agriculture and medicine in the brave, new world of "omics".


THE ANCIENT SCIENCE OF NENOMEDICINE: "BHASMA"
Parmar Aaratiben P.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
aaratiparmar03@gmail.com

Ayurveda and other Indian system of medicine use metals, but their use is also amply described in Chinese and Egyptian civilization in 2500 B.C. Bhasma are unique Ayurvedic mettalic/minerals Preparation, treated with herbal juice or decoction and exposed for Ayurveda, which are known in Indian subcontinent since 7th century A.D. and widely recommended for treatment of a variety of chronic ailments. Animal's derivative such as horns, shells, feathers, metallic, nonmetallic and herbals are normally administered as Bhasma. A Bhasma means an ash obtained through incineration; There are Various importance of Bhasma like maintaining optimum alkalinity for optimum health, neutralizing harmful acids that lead to illness; because Bhasma do not get metabolized so they don't produce any harmful metabolite, rather it breakdowns heavy metals in the body. Bhasma preparation and Bhasma are the best example of nanotechnology and Nanomedicine practiced during period. Bhasma - safe, quick, effective remedial measure. Methods including for Bhasma preparation are parpati, rasayoga, sindora. Bh - asma which contains Fe, Cu, S or other manufacturing process plays a specific role in the final product. Standardization of Bhasma is utmost necessary to confirm its identity and to determine its quality, purity safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the product. But the most important challenges faced by these formulations are the lack of complete standardization by physiochemical parameters.


NANOTECHNOLOY IN DRUG
Ruparel Khushbu B. & Chudasama Beena B.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
beenachudasama36@gmail.com & khushiruparel.69@gmail.com

Nanotechnology in drug delivery has been manifested into nanoparticles that can have unique properties both in vitro and in vivo, especially in targeted drug delivery to tumors. Numerous nanoparticle formulations have been designed and tested to great effect in small animal models, but the translation of the small animal results to clinical success has been limited. Successful translation requires revisiting the meaning of nanotechnology in drug delivery, understanding the limitations of nanoparticles, identifying the misconceptions pervasive in the field, and facing inconvenient truths. Nanoparticle approaches can have real impact in improving drug delivery by focusing on the problems at hand, such as enhancing their drug loading capacity, affinity to target cells, and spatiotemporal control of drug release. It is debatable when nanotechnology, as we now know it, began. Perhaps, we can trace the beginnings to the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope1, 2 in 1980, as it and the subsequently developed atomic force microscope3 enabled manipulation of individual atoms and molecules. The nanotechnology fever we are experiencing now began when the United States launched the National Nanotechnology Initiative, for the world's first program of its kind, in 2000. Since then, we have been bombarded by the dazzling images and cartoons of nanotechnology, such as nanorobots killing cancer cells resembling the plot of Fantastic Voyage.


DNA NANO - SIGNATURE FOUND IN ALL TYPES OF CANCER COULD IMPRUVE DETECTION PROCESS
Dal Minaj I. & Solanki Kinjal K.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
minajdal1199@gmail.com & Kinjal0103solanki@gmail.com

Epigenetic reprogramming in cancer genomes creates a distinct methylation landscape encompassing clustered methylation at regulatory regions separated by large intergenic tracks of hypomethylated regions. This methylation landscape that we referred to as methylscape id displayed by most cancer types, thus may serve as a universal cancer biomarker. To - date most research has focused on the biological consequence of DNA Methylscape changes whereas its impact on DNA Physiochemical properties remains unexplored. Here in, we examine the effect of levels and genomic distribution of methylcytosines on the physicochemical properties of DNA to detect impact the methylscape biomarker. We find that DNA polymeric behavior is strongly affected by differential patterning of methylsytosine, leading to fundamental differences in DNA salvation and DNA - gold affinity between cancerous and normal genomes .We exploit these methylscape differences to develop simple, highly sensitive and selective electrochemical or colorimetric one step assay for the detection of cancer. These assay are quick, i.e., analysis time < 10 minutes and require minimal sample preparation and small DNA input.


DEGRADATION OF PLASTIC BY MICROBES
Bhorania Shivali N. & Kargatiya Jagruti K.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
shivalibhorania09@gmail.com & Kargatiyajagruti288@gmail.com

Plastic is a synthetic material made from a wide range of organic polymers such as polyethylene, PVC, nylon etc. Plastic disposal is one of the greatest problems facing the environment today. As vast amount of plastic remain non - degradable. Degradation of plastic is not easy now days. So plastic require degrading. Plastics are versatile materials mainly due to their molecular structure and additives, and have many different positive applications that have eased human life to a great extent. Some microorganisms have the ability to degrade different types of plastic under suitable condition but due to non solubility in water decomposition is a slow process. Plastics are non - degradable and water resistant. Some microbes which degrade plastic with the help of microorganisms we can degrade plastic. Bacteria and fungi like Ideonella sakaiensis bacterium is the first living species to possess plastic degradation Waxworm caterpillars have been found to break down plastic. Aspergillus is the fungal strain which has major contribution in degradation of plastic. Flusarium solani is another fungal strain which can degrade plastic to a good amount approximately hundred percent. In this way plastic are degraded by microorganisms.


BIONIC GIRL
Ratanpara Zemi H. & Bhut Himani R.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
zemiratanpara4668@gmail.com & himanipate2512@gmail.com

The only known case of "chromosome 6 deletion" where a person does not feel pain, hunger or need to sleep (subsequently no sense of fear) is a seven year old girl named Olivia frans worth. In 2016 she was hit by a car & dragged 30 meters, yet nothing and emerged with minor injuries incredibly x - rays showed no damage. It is known as chromosome 6 deletion but the super human mix is thought to be a first. Some of the doctors have called her the "BIONIC GIRL" who is made of steel and has got no sense of danger. Only person in the world to exhibit the three symptoms together. As noted above associated symptoms and physical features may vary greatly in range and severity. Some cases have been reported in which children with chromosome 6 ring have normal intelligence and minimal physical abnormalities. In some cases additional physical abnormalities may also be present. Craniofacial malformation commonly associated with chromosome 6 ring includes and usually small head, a small jaw, vertical skin folds (epicanthal folds) that may cover the eyes' inner corners. Some affected individuals may also have a highly arched roof of the mouth, a short neck that may be webbed or have excessive skin and other Craniofacial abnormalities.


MOLECULAR IMAGING & CANCER THERAPY
Parmar Nisha J. & Bamrotiya Bhumi A.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
parmarnisha169@gmail.com & bhumibamrotiya254@gmail.com

The success of cancer therapy can be difficult to predict, as its efficacy is often predicated upon characteristics of the cancer, treatment & individual that are not fully understood or are difficult to ascertain. The response of disease to treatment is therefore essential & traditionally has been characterized by changes in tumour volume. The molecular imaging has become part of standard care for many types of cancer. Where other diagnosis imaging producers - such as x - rays , Computed Tomography (CT) & Positron Emission Tomography (PET).In the current methods for evaluating response to treatment & provide an overview of PET molecular imaging method that help guide future cancer therapy. Molecular imaging will allow clinicians to not only see where a tumour is located in the body, but also to visualize the expression and activity of specific molecules (e.g., proteases and protein kinases) and biological processes (e.g., apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis) that influence tumour behaviour or response to therapy. This information is expected to have a major impact on cancer detection, individualized treatment and drug development, as well as our understanding of how cancer arises.


UMBILICAL CORD STEM CELL
Nananiya Grishma R. & Nananiya Krishna J.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
grishmanananiya2000@gmail.com & nananiya.krishna@gmail.com

The use of umbilical cord blood as an alternative to bone marrow as a source of hematopoietic stem cells for the treatment of certain disease. More than 25000 allogenic cord blood transplantations have been performed worldwide since the first cord blood transplantation in 1988. The latest case studies about the use of such stem cells have been discussed and are used as evidence to confirm the potential use of the umbilical cord as a source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation as treatment to various diseases. In the human body, there are three main sources of stem cells: embryonic, adult and umbilical cells. The umbilical cord develops from the yolk sac and allantois, becoming the interface between the developing fetus and the placenta allowing blood flow between fetal and maternal circulation. There are two banking options for storing umbilical cord blood [private (family) and public]. Cord blood stored in private banks are used for either autologous or allogeneic transplants for the infant donor or related family members but private cord blood banks are not searchable or available to the public. More than 780000 cord blood units are stored in over 130 private cord blood banks, worldwide, and over 400000 units in more than 100 quality controlled public cord blood banks.


BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM
Vala Komal A. & Hothi Muskan R.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
komalvala14@gmail.com & Muskanhothi060@gmail.com

Rh blood group was discovered in 1940 by karl landsteiner and A.s weiner. Rh blood group system is one of the most polymorphic and immunogenic system known in human. In the past decade, intense investigation has yield considerable knowledge of the molecular background of the system a related protein the Rh glycoprotein is essential for assembly of the Rh protein complex in the erythrocyte membrane and for expression of Rh antigens. The Rh blood group system is the most polymorphic of the human blood groups, consisting of at least 45 independent antigens and next to ABO, is the most clinical significant in transfusion medicine. The Rh blood group expression and how this knowledge impacts on clinical situations that arise through Rh blood group incompatibility. The intron - exon boundaries of the RHCE gene (21) and the complete nucleotide sequences of some RHCE and RHD in tandem encompasses 32 kb. The RHD protein is enclosed by RHD. The RH proteins were erythroid specific and confined to higher vertebrates. The discovery of sequence related RHAG homologs in invertebrates.


NANOROBOTICS
Kaneriya Prexa G. & Desai Smruti A.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
prexakaneriya@gmail.com & Smrutipatel7220@gmail.com

Nanorobotics is an emerging, advanced and multidisciplinary field that calls for scientific and technical expertiseof medical, pharmaceutical, bio - medical, engineering as well as other applied and basic scientists. Nanorobots differ from macro - world robots, specifically in their nano sized constructs. Assembly and realization of nanorobots depend on the principles of molecular nanotechnology and machanosynthetic chemistry. Practically, these systems are nano electromechanical devices that are capable to carry out pre - programmed functions in a reliable and accurate manner with the help of energy provide by a pre - installed nanomotor or nanomachine bye to their small size and wide functional properties, nanorobots have createdexceptional prospects in medical, biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Although, no technology is available to construct artificial nanorobots, it is now possible to create nanorobots by using biological means.


WIRELESS PACEMAKER FOR THE BRAIN
Odedara Mital B. & Savaliya Roochita M.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
ruchitasavaliya7852@gmail.com & odedaramital1999@gmail.com

This neuro stimulator developed by engineers at the University of California the scientist Berkeley. That device named "WAND" (wireless artifact - free neuro modulation device).This device can be extremely effect at preventing debilitating tremors or seizures in patients, with a Variety of neurological condition. New neuro stimulation can listen to and stimulate electric current in the brain at the same time, potentially delivering fine - tuned treatments to patients with disease like epilepsy and Parkinson's. In proposed device, two new chips would be embedded in chassis located outside the head; each chip could monitor electrical Activity from 64 electrodes located in to the brain. WAND can record electrical activity over 128 channels, or from 128 points in the brain, compared to eight channels in other closed loop system researchers at courted neurotechnologies, led by Rikkymuller, designed the WAND custom integrated circuits that can record the full signal from both the subtle, brain waves and the strong electrical pulses. This chip design allows WAND to subtract the signal from the electrical pulses resulting in a clean signal from the brain waves. It recording electrical signals.


TUBERCULOSIS
Jadav Nensi V. & Gohil Foram J.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
nenujadav156@gmail.com & foramjgohil@gmail.com

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is cause of Tuberculosis (TB), infects one third of the world's population and causes substantial mortality worldwide. In its shortest format, treatment of TB requires six months of multidrug therapy with a mixture of broad spectrum and mycobacterial specific antibiotics, and treatment of multidrug resistant TB is longer. The widespread use of this regimen makes this one of largest exposures of humans to antimicrobials, yet the effect of TB treatment on intestinal microbiome composition and long term stability are unknown. We compared the microbiome composition, assessed by both 16s rDNA and metagenomic DNA sequencing, of TB cases during antimicrobial treatment and following cure by 6 months of antibiotics. TB treatment does not perturb overall diversity, but none the less dramatically significant commensal of TB therapy can persist for at least 1.2 years, treatment is long lasting. These results demonstrate that TB treatment has dramatic effects on the intestinal microbiome and highlight unexpected durable consequence of treatment for the world's most common infection on human ecology.


REGINA PROTEIN COULD BE KEY TO KEEPING STEM CELLS YOUNG
Makdiya Priya J. & Paghadar Nirali R.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
niralipaghdar402@gmail.com & priyamakadiya27@gmail.com

"Stem cells are biological cells found in all multicellular orgnisms that can divide (through mitosis) and differentiate into diverse speciallized cell types and can self - renew to produce more stem cells." A protein used by honeybees could hold the key to a fountain of youth for embryonic stem cells .Scientists identified a structurally similar mammalian protein that can maintain stem cell pluripotency. This protein named as "REGINA". Honeybee protein keeps stem cells youthful. An active protein component of royal jelly helps honeybees create new queens. The protein causes the cells to remain pluripotent, meaning they can become any cell in the body, under conditions that would normally trigger then to develop into speciallized cells. An active protein component of royal jelly helps honeybees create new queens; Stanford researchers have identified a similar protein in mammals, which keeps cultured embryonic stem cells pluripotent.


WATER POLLUTION
Thesiya Bhakti A. & Mesiya Parita S.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
bhaktithesiya17@gmail.com & parimesiya990@gmail.com

Water pollution is the caused of our undisciplined actions and irresponsibility. We all know that water pollution can affect our health badly and seriously. Water is essential to our body. Neither we nor every living thing can't survive without water. And so therefore, we should keep, protect, save, and help prevent our waters from being polluted , we should act as early as now, we should save rivers, seas and oceans, and other bodies of water because we will also bare the burden of this problem. We should not wait for the time until people are competing just to get sufficient, fresh and clean water, the time where clean water is insufficient to the people and animals, and the time where in our sources of water are diminishing or until the time where there are totally no sources of water. And so, let us be disciplined and responsible enough to save, protect and conserve not only sources of water but also our mother nature because our nature provides and helps us in our daily lives


NANOROBOTICS
Joshi Saurav N. & Kanpara Jimit B.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
joshisaurav874@gmail.com & jimitkanpara@gmail.com

Biomedical nanotechnology is a cross disciplinary area of research in science, engineering & medicine with broad applications for molecular imaging, molecular diagnosis & targeted therapy. When linked with biotargeting ligands such as monoclonal antibodies peptides or small molecules these nanoparticles can be used to target diseased cells and organs with high affinity & specificity. Nanorobotics is an emerging technology field creating machines or robots whose components are at or hear scale of a nanometer. More especially nanorobotics refers to the nanotechnology engineering discipline of designing & building nanorobots with devices ranging in size from 0.1 - 10 micrometers and constructed of nano scale or molecules components. Architecture biohazard defence system, COMs, integrated circuits, medical nanorobotics, nanobiosensor, and medical field can perform a wide range of tasks in monitoring diagnosis & treating diseases, inside the human body. Treatment & diagnosis of diabetes, deliver the drug, cancer detections & treatment, Gene therapy, Dentistry. Nanorobots are used to detect various tumors, kidney stones, blood, clots, etc. In industry & manufacturing super computer, brain's growth to improve health care. In future biomedical techonology is expected to employ nanorobots injected into the patient to perform work at a cellular level.


PROBIOTIC FOOD
Solanki Chetaxi Y.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
cysolanki111@gmail.com

Probiotic are live microorganisms intended to provide health benefits when consumed. Generally by improving or restoring the gut flora. Probiotics are considered generally safe to consume. But may cause bacteria - host interactions and unwanted side effects in rare cases. A growing probiotics market has led to the need for stricter requirements for scientific substantiation of putative benefits conferred by microorganisms claimed to be probiotic although there are numerous claimed benefits marketed towards using consumer probiotic products. Such as reducing gastrointestinal discomfort. Improving immune health, relieving constipation or avoiding the common cold such claims are not supported by scientific evidence and are prohibited as deceptive advertising in the United States by the federal trade commission. probiotic such as antibiotic associated diarrhea in children. Probiotics are under preliminary research to evaluate if they provide any effect on health. There is no scientific basis for extrapolating an effect from a tested strain to an untested strain. Improved health through gut flora modulation appears to be directly related to long - term dietary changes.


COSMTIC MICROBIOLOGY
Gondaliya Urja B. & Devani Heta H.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
urjapatel391999@gmail.com & hetadevani123@gmail.com

Cosmetics are products of chemical or natural origin dedicated specifically for use in skin and mucosa. The constant development of the cosmetic industry has generated the necessity to carry out microbiological analysis on the raw materials used in the industrial production of cosmetics as well as the final products, with the purpose of obtaining products of good microbiological quality. Cosmetic products are recognized to be substrates for the survival and development of a large variety of microorganisms, since they possess some of the nutrients that facilitate growth such as: lipids, polysaccharides, alcohol, proteins, amino acids, glucosides, esteroids, peptides, and vitamins. Also, the conditions of readiness (oxygenation, pH, temperature, osmotic degree, superficial activity, perfume, and essential oils) present in the cosmetic products favor microbial multiplication. Routine analyses to determine the microbiological quality of a cosmetic product include the following: Count of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, most probable number (MPN) of total coliforms, count of molds and yeasts, absence/presence of Staphylococcus aureus probe, absence/presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa probe.


METAGENOMICS: GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES AND UNCULTURED MICROORGANISMS
Bhalodiya Pooja A. & D'costa Diana J.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
diana.j.dcosta19@gmail.com & Poojabhalodiya333@gmail.com

Metagenomics enables genomics study of uncultured microorganisms. Metagenomics referred to as environmental and community genomics is the genomic analysis of microorganisms by direct extraction and cloning of DNA . Metagenomics provides study of the physiology and ecology of environmental microorganisms . Multiple genomes has provided energy and nutrient cycling within the community , genome structure , gene function , population genetics. The term metagenomics applied liberally in literature to describe any culture independent analysis of microbial communities . In metagenomics the data come from heterogenous microbial communities, containing more than 10,000 species with the sequence data. Metagenomic sequence information will facilitate the design of better culturing strategies to link genomic analysis with pure culture studies


COFFEE CONSUMPTION AND THE RISK OF COLORECTAL CANCER
Trada Niralee A.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
niraleetrada1234@gmail.com

Coffee contains several bioactive components that are relevant to colon physiology and coffee consumption has been proposed as a protective factor for colorectal cancer. However, epidemiologic evidence of an association between coffee consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) remain inconclusive. We investigated the association between coffee drinking and risk of CRC in 4,933 cases and 3,539 controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (MECC) study, a population - based case - control study of incident CRC in a geographically defined area of northern Israel. We also examined the association by type of coffee (decaffeinated, boiled, espresso, instant and filtered ), by ethnic sub - group (Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews and Arabs), and by cancer site (colon and rectum). Coffee consumption data was collected by interview using a validated, semi - quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for known risk factors including sex, age, ethnicity, vegetable consumption, sports participation, statin use, and daily low - dose aspirin use in all multivariable models. Mean coffee consumption in serving per day was 1.5 for Ashkenazi Jews, 1.9 for Sephardi Jews, 3.1 for Arabs, and 1.8 overall. Instant coffee was most common among Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jewish coffee - drinkers, and boiled coffee was most common among Arabs. Coffee consumption was association with a 31% relative reduction in odds of CRC.


TEA AND HEALTH: STUDIES IN HUMANS
Dave Devangi H. & Kundariya Jinkal N.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
devangi.dave9952@gmail.com & kundariyajinkal@gmail.com

Tea, next to water is the cheapest beverage humans consume. Drinking the beverage tea has been considered a health - promoting habit since ancient times. The modern medicinal research is providing a scientific basis for this belief. The evidence supporting the health benefits of tea drinking grows stronger with each new study that is published in the scientific literature. Tea plant Camellia sinensis has been cultivated for thousands of years and its leaves have been used for medicinal purposes. Tea is used as a popular beverage worldwide and its ingredients are now finding medicinal benefits. Encouraging data showing cancer - preventive effects of green tea from cell - culture, animal and human studies have emerged. Evidence is accumulating that black tea may have similar beneficial effects. Tea consumption has also been shown to be useful for prevention of many debilitating human diseases that include maintenance of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Various studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds present in green and black tea are associated with beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Evidence is accumulating that catechins and theaflavins, which are the main polyphenolic compounds of green and black tea, respectively, are responsible for most of the physiological effects of tea. This data describes the evidences from clinical and epidemiological studies in the prevention of chronic diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases and general health promotion associated with tea consumption.


MICROBES IN CANCER TREATMENT
Serasiya Pooja B. & Lashkari Kinjalben B.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
pooja.serasiya1999@gmail.com & kinjkinj812@gmail.com

Cancer remains one of the major challenges of 20th century. The increasing number of cases is not accompanied by adequate therapy. The today's standard method does not lead any expected effect. So it's important to find a new treatment method which is more effective. I find use of specific type of microorganisms in cancer treatment very promising. The type of treatment is expected to stimulate the immune system for selective removal of cancer cells. It is possible to use microbes in many different ways, based on specific properties, that is, toxin production, binding substance that can be delivered to specific location. My Paper data provides an overview of selected microbes which are already in use or that are in experimental phase. This anticancer therapy will give cancer patients a chance and hope for recovery.


WHY CHILDREN ABSORB MORE MICROWAVE RADIATION THAN ADULT
Gardhariya Avani J. & Bhatt Isha P.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
avanigardhariya2000@gmail.com & ibhatt2000@gmail.com

Computer simulation using MRI scans of children is way to determine the microwave radiation absorbed in specific tissues in children. Children absorb more MWR than adults, because the skulls of children are thinner and their size is smaller. The carcinogens released from wireless MWR. Children affected more than adults by the carcinogens. The fetus is vulnerable to MWR. MWR degenerated the protective myelin sheaths that surround brain neurons. Digital dementia has been reported in school age children. The exposure limit for laptop, computers, tablets is set when devices are tested is 20 cm away from the body. MWR emitting toys are being sold for use by infants and toddlers. When cell phones are placed near the breast of teenage girl, it causes Primary breast cancer. MWR exposure limits have remained unchanged for 19 years. All manufacturers of smart phones have warnings which describe the minimum distance at which phone must be kept away from users in order to not exceed the present legal limits for exposure to MWR. Belgium, France, India and other technologically knowledgeable governments are passing laws and issuing warnings about children's use of wireless devices.


HOUSEHOLD WASTE MANAGEMENT
Ranpariya Utsavi V. & Savaliya Mansi H.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
ranpariyautsavi7777@gmail.com & mansisavaliya3@gmail.com

With the economic growth, we are producing more and more waste, especially the domestic waste. Therefore, we should take action immediately to find the solution as to deal with the domestic problem. Waste can be solid, liquid or gas. This waste cause different environmental pollutions like air, water pollution etc. It has been observed that cities have no controlled structure for garbage disposal. The techniques for treatment and disposal are vermincomposting, anaerobic digestion pyrolysis etc. Managment includes the collection, transportation, treatment and disposal. The waste hierarchy refers to the "3R's" reduce, reuse, and recycle, which classifies waste management strategies. In some cases waste can pose a threat to human health. In many developed and developing countries, domestic wastes are managed by landfills. But landfilling contaminant groundwater. Open dump serve as breeding grounds for disease - carrying organisms such as rat and insects.


MICRO PLASTIC
Vadher Nisha V. & Hadiya Veena M.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
vadhernishav244@gmail.com & veenahadiya@gmail.com

Micro plastic is an emerging contaminant of concern in soils globally, probably gradually increasing in soil due to slow degradation. Few studies on micro plastic effects on soil biota are available, and no study in a micro plastic contamination context has specifically addressed soil protists. Soil protists, a phylogenetically and functionally diverse group of eukaryotic, unicellular soil organisms, are major consumers of bacteria in soils and are potentially important vehicles for the delivery of micro plastics into the soil food chain. Here we build a case for focusing research on soil protists by drawing on data from previous, older studies of phagocytosis in protist taxa, which have long made use of polystyrene latex beads (microspheres). Various soil - borne taxa, including ciliates, flagellates and amoebae take up micro plastic beads in the size range of a few micrometres. This included filter feeders as well as amoebae which engulf their prey. Discrimination in micro plastic particle uptake depended on species, physiological state as well as particle size. There is now a need to study micro plastic effects in a pollution ecology context: this means considering a broad range of particle types under realistic conditions in the soil, and exploring longer - term effects on soil protist communities and functions.


LINEAGE LEUKEMIA
Bhatt Jignasha V. & Vaja Jigna R.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
bhattjignasha542@email.com & Jignabenvaja1999@email.com

Acute mixed lineage leukemia is observed in children. Mixed lineage leukemia genes are located in chromosome 11q23. Mixed lineage leukemia is involved in transcription, amplification and duplication. Chromosomal translocation result in lymphoid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia. MLL3 and MLL3 are responsible for the tumor in the parents via children. ALL (acute lineage leukemia) are the blocked precursor for the B cell and T cell are responsible for the cell survivor and cell proliferation. Most of genes are involved in translocation have a homologues for other organisms. Recently the method in found and use in gene therapy studies and transgenic and emerging field for the proteomics and the genomic. Acute myeloid leukemia was the knot of a single disease but it is a group of leukemia's that develop in the bone marrow from the progenitor of specialized blood cells known as myeloid cells. AML caused by the rearrangement of the big chunks of DNA it is called chromosomal translocation. These data highlights the relevance of the combined genomic and proteomics cellular identify critical effects of genes involves to the development of the acute myeloid leukemia.


RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY
Patel Dhruvee R.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
dalsaniyadrp@gmaill.com

DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome. Recombinant DNA in a living organism was first achieved in 1973 by Herbert Boyer, of the University of California at San Francisco, and Stanley Cohen, at Stanford University, who used E. coli restriction enzymes to insert foreign DNA into plasmids. Recombinant DNA is the general name for a piece of DNA that has been created by the combination of at least two strands. Recombinant DNA is possible because DNA molecules from all organisms share the same chemical structure, and differ only in the nucleotide sequence within that identical overall structure. Recombinant DNA molecules are sometimes called chimeric DNA, because they can be made of material from two different species, like the mythical chimera. R - DNA technology uses palindromic sequences and leads to the production of sticky and blunt ends. Recombinant DNA differs from genetic recombination in that the former results from artificial methods in the test tube, while the latter is a normal biological process that results in the remixing of existing DNA sequences in essentially all organisms.


NANOVACCINATION
Desai Peri A. & Rabadiya Sweta K.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
peridesai12@gmail.com & swetarabadiya90@gmail.com

Vaccination is the most efficient way to protect humans against pathogens. Peptide based vaccines, which utilized whole organisms or proteins. However, peptides alone are not immunogenic and need a delivery system that can boost their recognition by the immune system. In recent years, nanotechnology - based approaches have become one of the most promising strategies in peptide vaccine delivery. This review summarizes knowledge on peptide vaccines and nanotechnology - based approaches for their delivery. The recently reported nano - sized delivery platforms for peptide antigens are reviewed, including nano particles composed of polymers, peptides, lipid, inorganic materials and nano tubes. The future prospects for peptide - based nano vaccines are discussed. Nano materials are delivered in the form of microspheres, Nano beads or micro - Nano projections. Painless, effective and safe needle - free routes such as the intranasal or the oral route, or patches of micro projections to the skin are some of the approaches which are in the experimental stage at present but may have a great future ahead in Nano vaccination. As a result, this multivalent nano vaccine, achieved through nanotechnology, has the potential to provide micro anatomical and functional imaging feedback of the DC - targeted anti - cancer immunotherapy, thus leading to longitudinal treatment and monitoring.


WIRELESS BODY AREA NETWORK
Jani Rutvi B. & Vamja Nensee A.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
rutvijani708@gmail.com & nenseevamja@gmail.com

The body area network field is an interdisciplinary area which could allow inexpensive and continuous health monitoring with real - time updates of medical records through the internet. A number of intelligent physiological sensors can be integrated into a wearable wireless body area network, which can be used for computer - assisted rehabilitation or early detection of medical conditions .This area relies on the feasibility of implanting very small bio - sensors incide the human body that are comfortable and that do not impair normal activities. The implanted sensors in the human body will collect various physiological changes in order to monitor the patient's health status no matter their location. This device will instantly transmit all information in real time to the doctors throughout the world. If an emergency is detected, the physicians will immediately inform the patient through the computer system by sending appropriate messages or alarms. Currently the level of information provided and energy resources capable of powering the sensors are limiting. While the technology is still in its primitive stage it is being widely researched and once adopted, is expected to be a breakthrough invention in health care, leading to concepts like telemedicine and mHealth becoming real.


ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF HERBS
Dodiya Dixita K. & Satasiya Priya A.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
dixitarajput123@gmail.com & Jansipatel91@gmail.com

This topic explain that, species and herbs have been long used for thousands of centuries by cultures to enhance the flavor and aroma of foods Ancient societies recognized the value of using species and herbs in preserving foods and for their medicinal value. During the 19th century scientific experiments have documented the antimicrobial activity or properties of some species herbs and their components. In the work we pointed out some of the effects of different species and herbs on microorganisms particularly that causes food poisoning. The use of plants in treatment of burns, dermatophyte and infectious diseases is common in traditional medicine. The development of new antimicrobial agents against resistant pathogenic is increasing interest. Some plants contain various compounds influence microbial growth, reproduction or basic cell growth. Antimicrobial activity can be tested by disc diffusion method. It was found out the less effective extracts were from thymes and lavender. The present study aimed at the evaluating in vitro antimicrobial activity of metabolic extract of some medicinal plants against E. coli, staphylococcus aureus etc. The main aim of this study to evaluate antimicrobial activity of liquid herbal anti infectivity manufactured.


BIONIC EYE
Modhvadiya Mirali R. & Sindhav Divya M.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
miralimodhvadiya121@gmail.com & sindhavdivya878@gmail.com

Eye is the most sensitive and most important part of a human beings body. India has largest blind populationin the world which is nearly about 15 million people. Bionic eye is an experimental visual devise intended to restore functional vision in those suffering blindness. Electronic device which replaces the functionality of a part or whole of the eye. Bionic eye devices are developed to restore a sense of vision to people with retinitis pigments and age related macular degeneration. A digital camera, video processing microchip, radio transmitter, radio receiver and retinal implant are parts of bionic eyes is the ability to perform visual tasks demonstrated in many patients. The brain has an amazing ability to adapt new input and to improve his or her understanding of what isbeing "seen" via an artificial vision system. Upgradable external hardware and software to be benefit from future innovations. Disadvantages of this bionic eye are high cost of device. If a single part of the chip is damaged the total technique will be meaningless.


POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT
Bhesaniya Rutvi P. & Purohit Prarthana H.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
rutvibhesaniya00@gmail.com & phpurohit77@gmail.com

As it is impossible to control pollution everywhere, "Pollution Control Equipment" is used. It helps in the removal of gaseous pollutants from the main gas stream. The pollution control equipment are categorised as 1) control devise for particulate contaminants and 2) control devise for gaseous contaminant. Gravitational setting, Cyclone separators, Fabric filters, Electrostatic precipitators, Wet collectors or scrubbers are included in Control devices for particulate contaminants. Wet absorption method and Dry absorption method are including in Control devices for gaseous contaminants. The Gravitational setting chamber are of long, horizontal, rectangular chambers with an inlet at one end an exit at the side or top the opposite end, they are used to remove large, abrasive particles usually greater then 50mm. Cyclone separators utilized centrifugal force, it consist of a cylinder with a conical base. Bag house filters are fabric filter system that filter out the particulate pollutant and allows the clear gas to pass though. The electrostatic precipitator works on the principle of electrostatic precipitation. Wet collectors or scrubbers remove the pollutants from gas stream by incorporating the particulates into liquid droplets. Nowadays the concentration of pollutants is increasing constantly which causes several side effects to plants, animals and mankind, so it becomes necessary to keep them in control.


EDIBLE WATERBOTTLE
Bariya Priya S.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
priyabariya2000@gmail.com

Edible water bottle - the biodegradable blob was created by skipping rocks lab in an attempt to make a more environmentally, friendly alternative to serving plastic bottles. The container, named "OOHO" edible water is a membrane made from brown algae and calcium chloride. It is the brain child of Pierre Paslier and Rodrego, Garcia Gonzalez who wanted to create and alternative of plastic bottle the ones many of us buy everyday and toss away. Their solution is an edible, seaweed - based membrane that holds the water. It is in the form of Gelatinous sphere called the OOHO contains one portion of water that you can eat. Plastic water bottles have become almost ubiquitous, adding to growing waste problem. The edible water developed that can either be eaten or thrown into the composed bin after use. Currently the edible water container is not available commercially. Although a developers are working to bring it into the market. Major challenges remain before the OOHO is marketed to public. Now a day's low plastic water bottles seen in increase in production. The main motive behind the creation of edible water bottles is less use of plastic. Plastic take too long to decompose about 1000 years in land fields. The conclusion for the production of edible water is to eliminate the use of plastic bottles.


CONVERSATION OF PLASTIC WASTES INTO LIQUID FUELS
Daki Laxmiben P. & Barad Bhargavee B.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
dakilaxmipranav@gmail.com & bhupatbhai@gmail.com

Various technologies are being developed to overcome the drawback of plastic namely, their non biodegradability. Though work has been done to make futuristic biodegradable plastic. There have not been many conclusive steps towards cleaning up the existing problem. Recycling waste plastics into reusable plastic products is a conventional strategy followed to address this issue for years. How ever this technique has not given impressive results as cleaning and segregation of waste plastics was found difficult. The used products have become a common feature at over flowing bins. Plastic is placed in a landfill. It becomes a carbon sink, Incineration, blast furnace, gasification are not much appreciated solution to the problem, as toxic gasses are produced and their cost of production is quite high. Pyrolysis of waste plastics in to fuel is one of the best means of conserving valuable petroleum resources in addition to protect the environment. This process involves catalytic degradation of waste plastic into fuel range hydrocarbon i.e. petrol, diesel and kerosene etc. A catalytic cracking process in which waste plastics were cracked at very high temperature, the resulting gases were condensed to recover liquid fuels. Type of plastics also effect the rate of conversion of into fuel and the results of this process are found to be better than other alternate methods which are used for the disposal of waste plastic.


ANTI - MICROBIAL RESISTANCE
Parmar Urvisha R. & Bera Dhara V.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science and I.T,, Junagadh
urvishaparmar20000@gmail.com, dharavbera@gmail.com

Development of antimicrobial resistance bacteria occurs due to repeated and improper use of antibiotics by a persons. Anti - microbial resistance is a global problem on the earth. Nowadays 70% microbes caused infection in hospital that's why resistance initially appeared in hospital. Because of increasing the resistance capacity of microorganisms, increasing mortality rate & also increasing the zoonotic diseases and decreasing effectiveness of antibiotics or drugs. A group of pathogens mainly "ESKAPE" responsible for the infections from the hospitals and are known as MDR Bacteria. There are many factors which affects the anti - microbial resistance such as quorum sensing, biofilm, horizontal gene transfer, etc. Through quorum sensings process bacteria communicate with each other by secreting chemical signals. Biofilm also help the organisms to increase anti - microbial resistance. Biofilm or group of bacteria plays a major role in host cell defense for establishing chronic or lethal infection. With the help of horizontal gene transfer method, gene which is responsible for the resistance is transfer from donor cell to recipient cell and make them resistance again drugs and antibiotics. At this time many researchers developed the medicine which inhibites the antimicrobial resistance.


MICROORGANISMS IN WASTE MANAGEMENT
Der Janvee D. & Der Hiral A.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science and I.T,, Junagadh
Janveeder001@gmail.com, hiralder11@gmail.com

At present,the amount of waste has increased in the atmosphere and is very harmful to humans.some specific use of microorganism like bacteria,fungi,algae, virus and protozoa in waste management. Microorganisms play important role in the maintenance of many natural and man made phenomenon in the environment.microorganisms are Management of waste by many methods such as monitoring, collection, Transport, processing, recycling, incineration, landfilling and composting. It reviews the various roles of microorganism in the environment such as In the sewage and soil treatment, energy generation,oil spillage and radioactive Contamination. Disposing the waste from everyday life is the challenge. Degradation of solid waste and liquid waste are complex but degradation of This two types of waste is easily done by microorganism. Microorganisms are Particularly in waste water treatment which utilize the metabolic activities of diverse mixed populations capable of degrading any compound that may be presented to them.Microbes also play an essential role in the natural recycling of living materials. Without microbes the earth would be filled with corpses. Bacteria breakdown dead organism, animal waste and plant litter to obtain nutrients. But microbes don't just eat nature's waste, they recycle it.


HIV - 1 VACCINE
Bhut Vrunda H. & Ranpariya Amisha N.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science and I.T,, Junagadh
vrundabhut89159@gmail.com, amisharanpariya53869@gmail.com

Overcoming envelope metastability is crucial to trimer based HIV - 1 vaccine design. Here, we present a coherent vaccine etrategy by minimizing abstract for 10 strains across five clades. We demonstrate that the gp4¹ ectodomain (gp4¹ ECTO) is the main source of envelope metastability by replacing wild type gp4¹ ECPO with BG505 gp41 Ecto of the uncleaved prefasion optimized (UFO) design. These gp4¹ ECTO swapped trimmers can be produced in CHO cells with high yield and high purity the crystal structure of a gp4¹ ECTO swapped trimer elucidates how a neutralization resistant tier 3 virus evades antibody recognition of transmitted /founder viruses and UFO trimmers containing a consensus based ancestraced gp4¹ ECTO suggest an evolutionary roof of metastability. The gp4¹ECTO stabilized trimmer can be readily displayed on 24 and 60 meric nanoparticles, with incorporation of additional T - cell help illustrated for a hyperstable 60 - mer, I3 - 01. In mice and rabbits these gp140 nanoparticles induced tier neutrylizing antibody responses more effectively them soluble trimers the envelope glycoprotein of HIV - 1 harbors the epitopes of all broadly neutrylizing antibodies (bNAbs) and is the main target of vaccine design. The cleaved mature ENV is presented on HIV - 1 virions as a metastable trimer of heterodimers each containing (co - ) receptor binding protein gp100, and a transmembrane protein gp4¹ which anchors the ENV spike within the viral membrane and drives the fusion process during cell entry.


ULCERATIVE COLITIS
Paghadal Dhruvi C. & Korat Smurti V.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science and I.T,, Junagadh
dhruvipaghadal314@gmail.com & smrutikorat99@gmail.com

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory chronic disease primarily affecting the colonic mucosa; the extent and severity of colon involvement are variable. In its most limited form it may be restricted to the distal rectum, while in its most extended form the entire colon is involved. UC belongs to the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which is a general term for a group of chronic inflammatory disorders of unknown etiology involving the gastrointestinal tract. UC is usually associated with recurrent attacks with complete remission of symptoms in the interim. In Western Europe and in the USA, UC has an incidence of approximately 6 to 8 cases per 100.000 populations and an estimated prevalence of approximately 70 to 150 per 100.000 populations. The leading initial symptom of UC is diarrhoea with blood and mucus, sometimes with pain. Fever and weight loss are less frequent. Extra intestinal symptoms can be an initial manifestation or can occur later in the course of the disease. Eighty percent of the patients have only proctitis or proctosigmoiditis, and only 20% have extensive colitis. However, in about 50% of patients with initial proctosigmoiditis, proximal extension occurs later, and in some patients the opposite takes place. Depending of the stage of the disease,endoscopy reveals reddening of the mucosa, increased vulnerability, mucosal bleeding, irregular ulcers, pseudo polyps, granularity, and loss of vascular architecture. Several drugs interacting with various points along the immune and inflammatory cascades are currently available for the treatment of UC. Corticosteroids, amino salicylates, immunomodulators are the mainstay of medical treatment.


AEROPHONIC
Baraiya Chandani S. & Chandravadiya Bansari B.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science and I.T,, Junagadh
chandanibaraiya@gmail.com , ahirj557@gmail.com

Tha Aerophonic is a total system providing for the growth and development of detached plants basically, it is an air water in cuiture in which the nutrients are supplied in a water mist directly to the bare root system. Thus, oxygen and water mist so often a limiting growth factors in conventional soil and water media system, are adequately supplied. The system, in its present state of development, is composed of molecular units controlled electronically, so as to ensure the pre - determined needs of the particular growing plant. The performance of the system has been tested successfully (growing and rooting ) with several plants, such as : vegetable ( tomato, cucumber etc.) ornamental plants, ( croten, chrysanthemum, ficus, philodendron, etc.) and fruits trees - wooden cutting ( olive, citrys and grape : apple, pear, etc ) from the agriculture point of view, the method result in higher yields with only minimal additional training of the grower , it the use of fertilizers and water because of the re - use of nutrient solution.


ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
Bhesaniya Dhruvisha K. & Thummar Riddhi S.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science and I.T,, Junagadh dhruvishabhesaniya15@gamil.com, riddhithumar104@gamil.com

In Alzheimer's disease(AD) , brain lesions are marked by server neuronal loss are retinal degeneration was previously mentioned in affected patients mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Is a clinical syndrome that could be an early phase of AD. In this study using optical coherence tomography (OCT) , the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness was assessed in patients with mild AD, moderate to severe AD, amnestic MCI and control subject. The results show that RNFL thickness is statistically reduced in patients with MCI mild AD or moderate to severe AD compared to control. Alzheimer's is an irreversible, progressive brain disease that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, eventually even the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. Although risk of developing AD increase with age - in most people with AD, symptoms first appear after age 60 - AD is not a part of normal aging. It is caused by a disease that affect the brain. In the absence of diseases, the human brain often can function well into the tenth decade of life. Advantages of the treatment would be: Safe and pose no negative side effects to the body, Rejection free, Procedure is simple and painless administered by IV drip thought veins in one of your hand. Possible improvement after the treatment include Learning and memory, Mood and behaviour,and Spirits and thinking


JATROPHA PLANT BIOFUEL
Chothani Jigisha & Katharotiya Reni

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science and I.T,, Junagadh
jigishapatel095@gmail.com, renikatharotiya@gmail.com

Biodiesel has attracted considerable attention during the past decade as renewable, biodegradable and non - toxic fuel alternative to fossil fuels. Biodiesel can be obtained from vegetable oils and from animal fat. Jatropha curcas Linnaeus, a multipurpose plant, converted to biodiesel. J. curcas is probably the most highly promoted oilseed crop at present in the world. The availability and sustainability of sufficient supplies of less expensive feedstock in the form of vegetable oils, particularly J. curcas and efficient processing technology to biodiesel will be crucial determinants of delivering a competitive biodiesel. Oil contents, physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition of J. curcas reported in literature are provided in this review the fuel properties of jatropha biodiesel are comparable to those of fossil diesel and confirm to that American and European standards. The seed oil and research attempts to improve the technology of converting vegetable oil to biodiesel and the fuel properties of the Jatropha biodiesel the technological methods that can be used to produce biodiesel are presented together with their advantages and disadvantages. The use of lipase as biotechnological solution to alkali and acid catalysis of transesterification and its advantages is discussed. There is need to carry out research on the detoxification of the seed cake to the increase the benefits from J. curcas. There is also still a part of research about the influence of various cultivation related factors and their interaction and influence on seed yield.


FOOD BORN DISEASES
Dangar Hetal L.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science and I.T,, Junagadh
hetalahir1231@gmail.com

Food born of diseases caused by food borne pathogen remains largely unknown. Food borne intestinal diseases is limited to a few industrialized countries diseases mainly due to contaminated food and water a cause of death will decline worldwide. Food is excellent vehicle by which many pathogens can an appropriate colonistion site in a new host. Although food production practices change, the well - recognized food borne pathogens. Such as Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coil has been discussed as separate topic because its relative importance to policy issue. The global burden of food disease is currently. Unknown but the world health organization had responded to this data gap by launching a new initiative to provide better estimates. There are over 200 known microbial chemical or physical agents that can cause illness when ingested. A diseases is such as public concern public health efforts have been directed mainly towards the well reconised food borne diseases and pathogene in the food chain. Food borne diseases is any diseases resulting form the consumption of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, virus parasites, food as well as chemical or nature toxins such as poisonous mushrooms.


MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS
Dangar Khushbu K. & Gal Pruthvi S.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science and I.T,, Junagadh
Khushbudangar14@gmail.com, Pruthviahir999@gmail.com

India is rich in medicinal and aromatic plants covering an extensive area with different environmental conditions. The geographical position of India, its geomorphology, the presence of flora of past geological eras and the coexistence and interplay of biotic and non - biotic factors have defined It as a region of high plant diversity and endemism, a fact that also impacts. Aromatic plants contain aromatic compounds basically essential oils that are volatile, hydrophobic and highly concentrated compounds. These oils are complex mixtures of secondary metabolites comprised of low boiling point phenylpropenes and terpens. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of aromatic plants have been widely explored and found to have health applications in prevention and reducing risk of diseases such as inflammation, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular and cancer. In the olden days indigenous medicine had attained a very high standard and we have stalwarts in Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Allopathy, and Homeopathy. After some decades there is a shift within many developing countries form subsistence to commercial usage. Truly it may be said that medicinal and aromatic plants have changed the world and undoubtedly play an important role in the future as they have in the past.


RECOGNIZING RESILIENCE: LEARNING FROM THE EFFECTS STRESS ON THE BRAIN
Devaliya Janavi B.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science and I.T,, Junagadh
janavidevaliya164@gmail.com

As the central organ of stress and adaption to stressors, brain plays a pivotal role in behavioral and physiological responses that may lead to successful adaption or to pathophysiology and mental physical disease. In this context, resilience can be defined as "achieving a positive outcome in the face of adversity". Underlying this deceptively simple statement are several questions; first, to what extent is this ability limited to those environments that have shaped the individual or can it be more flexible; second, when in the life course does the brain develop capacity for flexibility for adapting positively to new challenges; and third, can such flexibility be instated in individuals where early life experiences have limited that capacity? Brain architecture continues to slow plasticity throughout adult life and epigenetic regulation reveal a dynamic and ever - changing brain. The goal is to recognize gene pathways, epigenetic factors and structural changes that indicate lack of resilience leading to negative outcomes, particularly when the individual is challenged by new circumstances. Early life experiences determine individual differences determine individual differences in such capabilities via epigenetic pathways and laying down of brain architecture that determine the later capacity for flexible adaption or the lack thereof. Reactivation of such plasticity in individuals lacking such resilience is a new challenge for research and practical application. Finally, sex differences in the plasticity of the brain are often overlooked and must be more fully investigated.


"THE MECHANISM OF NEUROTRANSMITTER"
Manavadariya Vansi R. & Buddhdev Shraddha H.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science and I.T,, Junagadh
Vansimanavadariya08@gmail.com, shraddhabuddhdev@gmail.com

Neurotransmitter means chemical substances that are released by nerve ending across a synapse. Synaptic cleft is attached between two nerve cells. In this mechanism calcium ion is most require, this ion enter in the cell and make synaptic vesicles with pre - synaptic membrane. Neurotransmitter is work as messenger. Neurotransmitter pass the messages brain to our body. Important neurotransmitter is like acetylcholine, nor - epinephrine, dopamine, GABA (gamma amino butyric acid), serotonin. Test of neurotransmitter measure the blood platelet levels of dopamine, nor - adrenalin, adrenalin, serotonin and acetylcholine. These levels are found in the fluid in the brain, thus indicating excesses, deficiencies and imbalance in neurotransmitter. Depression, anxiety and other mood disorders are thought to be directly related to imbalances with neurotransmitters. Synaptic vesicles that store neurotransmitter after they are synthesized. After the neurotransmitters are released, they diffuse across the synaptic cleft and interact with receptors on the postsynaptic membrane. The neuron transmitting the message is called pre - synaptic neuron. The transmitter of signals from one neuron to another across the synapse was earlier thought to be electric. There are several types of neurotransmitters and each one of them is responsible for some specific functions.


BACILLUS ANTHRACIS
Thumar Foram D. & Kher Darshana B.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science and I.T,, Junagadh
forampatel4170@gmail.com, darshanakher97031@gmail.com

Bacillus antracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax - a common disease of livestock and, occasionally, of human - and the only obligate pathogen within the genus Bacillus. B. anthracis is a gram - positive, endospore forming, rod - shaped bacterium, with a width of 1.0 - 1.2 micrometer and lenth of 3 - 5 micrometer. It can be grown in an ordinary nutrient medium under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. It is one of few bactaria known to synthesize a protein capsule. Like Bordetella pertussis, it forms a calmodulin - dependent adenylate cyclase exotoxin known as anthrax edema factor, along with anthrax lethal factor. It bears close genotypical and phenotypical resemblance to Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. All three species share celluler dimentions and morphology.All form oval spores located centrally in an unswollen sporangium. B. anthracis endospores, in particular, sare highly resilient, surviving extremes of temperature, low nutrient environments, and harsh chemical treatment over decades or centuries. The endospore is a dehydrated cell with thick walls and additional layer that forms inside the cell membrane. It can remain inactive for many years, but if it comes into a favorable environment, it begins to grow again. It initially developes inside the rod - shaped forms. Electron micrograph sections shows they have a thin outer endospore coat, a thick spore cortex, and an inner spore membrane surrounding the endospore contents. The endospores resist heat, drying, and many disinfectant.


PEST CONTROL USING NANOTECHNOLOGY
Trambadia Janki D. & Dave Khushi D.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science and I.T,, Junagadh
khushidave213@gmail.com, jankiuma1@gmail.com

Today pest is one of the most hesitating factor affecting the agriculture and urban environment. At the same time we provide several methods on pest control .In present days the chemical pesticides which are used is harmful to agriculture and urban environment and causes side effects on normal life of mammals and other organism . Apart from that nanotechnology is the one of the method which is most beneficial and have less side effects. "Nanoparticles are particles between 1 to 100 nm in size with a surrounding interfacial layer". Apart from the use of Nanoparticles as carrier of a broad category of active ingredients including insecticides. Moreover several types of Nanoparticles are produced by natural resource - based substances, which make them promising "green "alternative to the use of chemical pest control agent which are harmful and cause great threat to environment. So Nanoparticles can be the best alternative of any other pest control agent.


ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION: CAUSES AND EFFECTS
Vadodariya Nikita M. & Rakholiya Jisha G.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science and I.T,, Junagadh
nikitavadodariya022@gmail.com, rakholiyajisha123@gmail.com

Air pollution is the atmosphere of chemical, particulates or biological materials which cause diseases or death to humans and damage other living organisms such as damage the natural environment or built environment. Two types of pollutants that is 1) Primary 2) Secondary pollutants. Primary pollutants include SOX, NOX, CO, toxic metals, NH3 and Secondary pollutants include the particulates and ground level ozone. Man made sources are stationary, mobile sources, chemicals and natural sources dust, methane radon gas, smoke, vegetation are causes to diseases. Air pollution is a significant risk factor for multiple health conditions including respiratory infections, heart diseases and lung cancer according to the WHO. The health effects caused by air pollution may include difficulty in breathing, wheezing, coughing, asthma and aggravation of existing respiratory and cardiac conditions. Poisonous air pollutants can form acid rain. It can also form dangerous ground level ozone. These destroy trees, crops, farms, animals and continue to make water bodies harmful to humans and animals that live and depend on water. The following items are commonly used as pollution control devices by industry or transportation devices. They can either destroy contaminants or remove them from an exhaust stream before it is emitted into the atmosphere for example, mechanical, collectors, electrostatic precipitators, bag houses, particulate scrubbers etc.


OZONE DEPLETION
Dadhaniya Dhruvi K. & Vaghela Krupali S.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science and I.T,, Junagadh
dhruvidadhaniya76@gmail.com, vaghelakrupali2000@gmail.com

Ozone is a stratospheric layer that plays important role to providing support to human for their survival. It is an essential factor for many global, biological & environmental phenomena. The ultra violet rays emitted from sun are captured by ozone and there by provide a stable ontological structure in the biosphere. Various anthropogenic activities such as emissions of CFCs. HFCs and other organo halogens lead to the depletion of ozone. The ozone depletion resulted in secondary production of an ozone layer near the ground (terrestrial ozone layer) which responsible for adverse effect on plant, human and environmental which increased number of bronchial disease in human. The mutations caused by UV rays result in variation in morphogenic trait of plants which ultimately decreases crop productivity. However, UV radiation is required in optimum intensity for both plants and animals. This review takes into an account the wide ranging effects of ozone depletion with a majority of then being detrimental to the plant system some 2 billion year ago, rising atmospheric oxygen concentrations helped earth's atmosphere to build up ozone and gradually led to the formation of stratosphere.


EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE
Bhayani Kashyap k. & Vaza Ankur T.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science and I.T,, Junagadh
bhayanikashyapking05@gmail.com, vazaankur030@gmail.com

Ebola virus disease destroys immune function and initiates an inflammatory and coagulative response, resulting in internal haemmorhaging and organ failure. Vaccines rVSV - ZEBOV and cAd3 - ZEBOV are discovered by WHO. In contrast, a similar study which tested the safety of rVSV - ZEBOV in immune - compromised animals suggested that the lymphocyte CD4 may play a role in mediating protection against Ebola. The results of this experiment saw animals which perished had a lower CD4+ count. Furthermore, this study concluded that rVSV - ZEBOV indicated no evidence of associated illness in immunocompromised animals; suggesting that this vaccine may be safe in immunocompromised populations. This is important as Ebola virus is prominent in West Africa where HIV is highly prevalent. CAd3 - ZEBOV Chimpanzee - based adenovirus expressing Ebola glycoprotein is another promising potential vaccine against Ebola virus. Experiments performed on vaccinated mice and Guinea pigs saw stimulation of lymphocyte cells in response to Ebola virus. Complete protection was observed among the test subjects. Concerns were raised as to whether interference of pre - existing immunity to adenovirus would compromise the vaccines efficacy. Results saw no interference of pre - existing immunity among subjects vaccinated with the chimpanzee - based adenovirus. In comparison, the human - based adenovirus was severely impacted by pre - existing immunity.


MECHANISMS OF CANCER DRUG RESISTANCE
Faldu Ritik Shashikantbhai & Paghdar Krupa Hareshbhai

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science and I.T,, Junagadh
ritikfaldu81@gmail.com , krupapaghdar21242124@gmail.com

The design of cancer chemotherapy has become increasingly sophisticated, yet there is no cancer treatment that is 100% effective against disseminated cancer. Resistance to treatment with anticancer drugs results from a variety of factors including individual variations in patients and somatic cell genetic differences in tumours, even those from the same tissue of origin. Frequently resistance is intrinsic to the cancer, but as therapy becomes more and more effective, acquired resistance has also become common. The most common reason for acquisition of resistance to a broad range of anticancer drugs is expression of one or more energy - dependent transporters that detect and eject anticancer drugs from cells, but other mechanisms of resistance including insensitivity to drug - induced apoptosis and induction of drug - detoxifying mechanisms probably play an important role in acquired anticancer drug resistance. Studies on mechanisms of cancer drug resistance have yielded important information about how to circumvent this resistance to improve cancer chemotherapy and have implications for pharmacokinetics of many commonly used drugs.


MICROBIAL FUEL CELLS
Odedara Shantiben L.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science and I.T,, Junagadh
bhav4ever@gmail.com

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been used to produce electricity from different compounds, including glucose. Recently, great attentions have been paid to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) due to their mild operating conditions and using variety of biodegradable substrates as fuel. MFCs research is a rapidly evolving field that lacks established terminology and methods for the analysis of system performance. This makes it difficult for researchers to compare devices on an equivalent basis. We demonstrate here that it is also possible to produce electricity in a MFC from different sugars and organic compounds of sewage water, etc. Different microbes can be used as proton donor using organic fuel present in cell. Direct electron transfer from different microbial strain to an electrode was examined using cyclic voltammetry and a fuel cell type electrochemical cell. Both methods determine the electrochemical activity of the bacterium. Bioreactors based on power generation in MFCs may represent a completely new approach to wastewater treatment and organic waste management. If power generation in these systems can be increased, MFC technology may provide a new method to eco - friendly power generation is affordable for both developing and industrialized nations


CELL PHONES AND BRAIN TUMORS: A REVIEW INCLUDING THE LONG - TERM EPIDEMIOLOGIC DATA
Sapariya Kesha B. & Vadaliya Manshi D.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science and I.T,, Junagadh
keshapatel0802@gmail.com, vadaliyamanshi19@gmail.com

The debate regarding the health of low - Intensity electromagnetic radiation from sources such as power lines, base stations, and cell phones has recently been reignited. In the present review, the authors attempts to address the following question: is there epidemiological evidence for an association between long term cell phone usage and the risk of developing a brain tumour? Included with this meta - analysis of the long term epidemiologic data are a brief overview of cell phone technology and discussion of laboratory data, biological mechanisms, and brain tumour incidence. In order to be included in the present meta - analysis, studies were required to have meet all of the following criteria:(1) publication in a peer reviewed journal; (2) inclusion of participating using cell phone for >10 years (I.e., minimum 10 - years "latency");(3)incorporation of a "laterality "analysis of long term users (IE, analysis of the side of the brain tumour relatives to the side of the head preferred for cell phones usage). This is a meta - analysis incorporating all 11 long term epidemiological studies in this field. The results indicate that using a cell phones for >10 years approximately double the risk of being diagnosed with the brain tumour on the same side of the head as that preferred for a cell phoneuse. The data achieve statistical significance for gloomy and acoustic neurons but not for meningioma. It concludes that there is adequate epidemiological evidence to suggest a link between prolonged cell phone usage and the development of an ipsilateral brain tumour.


IMMUNOTARGETED DNA NANOSTRUCTURES
Parmar Nutanba P.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science and I.T,, Junagadh
parmarnutanba1121@gmail.com

Ultimately, our technology solves the challenges associated with stem cell therapy for the heart following a myocardial infarction. In particular, by delivering VEGF to the heart. Our technology employs a two component strategy to target VEGF directly to the heart. The first component is a DNA nanostructure in the shape of a cube. This nanostructure contains a lid that is closed shut by DNA duplexes, which function as "locks". They are configured in such a way that when a DNA "key strand" with a complementary sequence comes into contact with the "lock", one of the stands in displace and the lid opens. They target these structures directly to the myocardium using a second component. This complex consists of an antibody to a myocardiocyte specific marker conjugated to a biotinylated DNA "key" strand. These two motifs are connected by a specifically engineered streptavidin - protein - A chimer that is synthesized using the pET expression system in the E.coli strain BL(DE3).Together, these two components ensure that the release of VEGF from the DNA nanostructures is concentrated the damaged myocardium.


PLATINUM DRUGS FOR CANCER
Nirali Mer & Gajera Harvita

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science and I.T,, Junagadh
mernirali2312@gmail.com, rajgajera2323@gmail.com

After stage, platinum drugs resistance is the single most important factor in determining prognosis in ovarian cancer. Overcoming platinum drug resistance, a major Challenge in the current clinical practice for the management of ovarian cancer. We discovered a novel drug combination approach using platinum agents with mdivl - 1(mitochondrial division inhibitor 1) that is able to synergistically induce rapid apoptosis in platinum - resistant ovarian cancer cells, including established cisplatin - resistant ovarian cancer cells. Platinum Therapy is the use of platinum compounds, which are cell damaging agents, for the treatment of specific cancers, including testicular, ovarian, lung, bladder, and head and neck cancers. Platinum compounds produce changes in DNA structure, which causes cancer. Platinum compounds currently used are cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin, either used alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs. Side effects of platinum therapy include general cell - damaging effects, such as nausea and vomiting, decreased blood cell and platelet production in the bone marrow (myelosuppresion) and decreased response to infection (immunosuppression). Specific side effects include kidney (nephrotoxicity) and nerve damage (neurotoxicity). Platinum therapy is currently used in the treatment of various different cancer types. Platinum compounds cause apoptosis of cancer cells through changes in DNA structure, which inhibits DNA replication, transcription and cell division (the cell cycle). Cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are platinum therapies currently used in Australia. These agents do not all have the same clinical efficacy in all cancer types.


BACTERIA LIFE CYCLE
Gorad Hardik N.

Department of Life Science, S.E.T Mahila College, Junagadh (Bhattu)
hardikgorad89@gmail.com

Bacterial growth is the asexual reproduction, or cell division, of a bacterium into two daughter cells, in a process called binary fission. Providing no mutational event occurs, the resulting daughter cells are genetically identical to the original cell. Hence, bacterial growth occurs. Both daughter cells from the division do not necessarily survive. However, if the number surviving exceeds unity on average, the bacterial population undergoes exponential growth. The measurement of an exponential bacterial growth curve in batch culture was traditionally a part of the training of all microbiologists; the basic means requires bacterial enumeration (cell counting) by direct and individual (microscopic, flow cytometer), direct and bulk (biomass), indirect and individual (colony counting), or indirect and bulk (most probable number, turbidity, nutrient uptake) methods. Models reconcile theory with the measurements. Environmental factors influence rate of bacterial growth such as acidity (pH), temperature, water activity, macro and micro nutrients, oxygen levels, and toxins. Conditions tend to be relatively consistent between bacteria with the exception of extremophiles.


DATA ANALYSIS OF TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY OF JUNAGADH CITY
Qureshi Fiza Z.

Department of Life Science, Shri P.K.M. College of Technology & B.Ed.
qzakir4@gmail.com

Knowledge of climate data in a region is necessary for business, society, agriculture, and pollution and energy applications. In research and development, it makes the researchers to pay an extra attention towards this type of matter. As there is an impressive achievement in this field over the past few years, among all the other seasonal climatic attributes, the main factor used by the researchers the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) to develop the system for prediction of temperature and humidity. Data mining is one such technology which is employed in inferring useful knowledge that can be put to use from a vast amount of data, various data mining techniques such as classification, prediction, clustering and outlier analysis can be used for the purpose. The main aim of this paper is to acquire temperature and humidity data and use a clustering technique with K - Nearest Neighbor method to find the hidden patterns inside the large dataset so as to transfer the retrieved information into usable knowledge for classification and prediction of climate condition.


MARINE DIVERSITY OF POSHITRA
Solanki Jenish H.

Department of Life Science, Shri P.K.M. College of Technology & B.Ed.
jenishsolanki0612@gmail.com

Poshitra is known for its rich marine biodiversity which is located in the district DevbhumiDwaraka.There are more than 42 islands located around Poshitra and it is the regular site for dolphins. This area has high coral diversity and act as a paradise of reef ecosystem. The diversity of this region includes more than 37 species of hard corals, 3 - 5 species of soft corals, reef fish, sponges, sea weeds, jelly fish, sea cucumber, sea slug, octopus, sea star, puffer fish, shrimp, crabs, sea turtle, window pane oyster, sea anemone and so on. There are several rock pools with rocks covered by barnacles and oysters which attracts birds like plovers and lapwings. There are limestone fossils of coral at Poshitrabhadu evidence that the place was submerged underwater over several million years ago.
Key Words: Marine, Diversity, Ecosystem, coral reef, island, submerged, etc.


"ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE FISHES OF SAURASHTRA COST"
Jethava Aarti R.

Department of Life Science, Shri P.K.M. College of Technology & B.Ed.
jethavaarti9@gmail.com

Gujrat is one of the main fish producing state of India with a cost line of abouet 1600KM, including 41 ports. These are about 148 various species of fishes are found througout. Out of that few species cousidering as highly important due to it's high commercial velue in the local market. We are figure out serval species along with their market value due to edible and taste we are also including some valuable fishes which have high conservation status as well with in saurashtra costal area.
KEY WORDS: Conservation, commercially, valuable, edible, port


VARIOUS TOOLS USED TO STUDY WILDLIFE
Mesvania Shivangi K. & Hala Aarzoo D.

Department of Life Science, Shri P.K.M. College of Technology & B.Ed.
shivangimesvania6112@gmail.com

Recently the world is progressing very fast with the help of latest crucial advancements in instrument and technology. In this technical era the study of various wild spices become the more easy and accurate. Now a days the use a range of equipments found to be useful in field studies and when we think of wildlife studies tools few equipments comes first in our mind like Binocular, Telescope, GPS, etc. which are basic & essential for wildlife studies. In this we try to understand the complexity & up gradation of technology in each tool from earlier years recent.
KEY WORDS: Technology, Wildlife study, GPS, Binocular, Telescope etc.


TYPES OF BEAK IN BIRDS
Zala Kuldip B.

Department of Life Science, Shri P.K.M. College of Technology & B.Ed.
zalakb2001@gmail.com

Avifauna shows a huge diversity in many aspects such as in the selection of habitats, food resources, courtship behaviour etc. Birds are the most beautiful and melodious creatures of nature. One can study it through the identifications and observations of any desired species. For that various beak type play a vital role in grouping the birds with particular type of beak/bill. It is very interesting that the food preferences by various birds depend on their beak and feeding mechanism. So, beak is useful tool for identification of food resources by any bird species.
Key Words: Marine, Diversity, Ecosystem, coral reef, Island, Submerged, etc.


INTEGRATION OF ORGANIC FARMING PRACTICES IN CULTIVATION OF AYURVEDA HERBS: AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH
Pandya Utsav P.

Indian Institute Of Ayurveda Research and Hospital - Rajkot.
utsavpandya7@gmail.com

Organic farming is an ancient and appropriate method of agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices. Organic farming continues to be developed by various organic agriculture organizations today. Natural cultivation practices are far better than chemical soil management. A large nine - year study by USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), shows that organic farming builds up organic soil matter better than conventional no - till farming. It is the domestication of animals, cultivation of plants and other forms of life for food, fiber and medicinal products to sustain and enhance human life. Nowadays farming is done by means of machinery, chemical fertilizers and pesticides. This has created unemployment and diminished the quality of soil and food grains. People are helpless and forced to eat the food available to them, although many are aware that the food they consume is not safe for health. The time has now come to give serious consideration to the growth of ayurvedic herbs and all food materials like grains, vegetables and fruits by organic means. The present study was carried out to review the concept of organic farming and to create awareness amongst the policymakers about its benefits for the welfare of all. Assess cost of products obtained by organic farming and develop methods to reduce the cost. So, it can be available for all people.


A CASE STUDY OF INFLUENZA AN AFFECTED IN HUMAN BEING
Gojiya Dipali1, Varotariya Bhumika2

Department of Biology SET Science College, Junagadh, Gujarat

Influenza, commonly called "the flu," is an illness caused by RNA viruses of the Family Orthomyxoviridae the influenza viruses that infect the respiratory tract of many animals, birds, and humans. Influenza viruses are major human respiratory pathogens that cause both seasonal, endemic infections and periodic, unpredictable viruses. Its spreading mainly from person to person by droplet infection or droplet nuclei created by sneezing, coughing or talking. The portal of entry of the virus is the respiratory tract. The worst sickness on record, in 1918, killed approximately 50 million people worldwide. Human infections caused by H1N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have raised concern about the emergence of another pandemic.


LUNG CANCER IN HUMAN
Parekh Payal K. & Sisodiya Sagarkumar K.

B.N. Patel Institute of Paramedical and Science, Anand(Gujarat) 388001
payalparekh1580@gmail.com & sisodiyasagar303@gmail.com

What is Cancer? - A disease in which abnormal cells divide uncontrollably and destroy body tissue. It is also known as lung carcinoma. Type of Cancer: Breast Cancer, Prostate Cancer, Basal Cancer, Melanoma Cancer, Colon Cancer, Lung Cancer, Leukemia, Lymphoma Source: A Cancer that begins in the lungs and most of the occurs in people who smoke. There are two Major types: NSCLC (Non - Small Cell Lung Cancer), SCLC (Small Cell Lung Cancer) Symptoms: Coughing (including coughing up blood), Weight Loss, Shortness breath, Chest Pains Risk Factor: Tobacco Smoking, Genetic Factor, Radon Gas, Asbestos, Air Pollution.


NANO BASED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Mamta Paswan & Rawalji Kinjal

paswanmamta11@gmail.com & Rawaljikinjal88@gmail.com

Nanomedicine and nano delivery system are a relatively new but rapidly developing science where materials in the nanoscle range are employed to serve as means of diagnostic tools or to deliver therapeutic agents to specific targeted sites in a controlled manner. Nanotechnology offers multiple benefits in treating chronic human diseases by site - specific, and target - oriented delivery of precise medicines. Recently, there are a number of outstanding applications of the nanomedicine (chemotherapeutic agents, biological agents, immuntherapeutic agents etc.) in the treatment of various diseases. The current review, presents an updated summary of recent advances in the field of nanomedicines and nano based in the field of nanomedicines and nano based drug delivery systems through comprehensive scrutiny of the discovery and application of nanomaterials in improving both the efficacy of novel and old drugs(e.g., natural products) and selective diagnosis through disease market molecules. In addition, we have included information regarding the trends and perspectives in nanomedicine area. We get protection from diseases like cancer, Alzheimer etc. Nanotechnology finds the cancer tablet like curcumin, silamarin, kaempferal etc.


PLANT AS EXPRESSION SYSTEM FOR RECOMBINANT PROTEINS PRODUCTION: THE GREEN PERSPECTIVE
Dadhaniya Kishan A. & Sojitra Rasik K.

Department of Life Science, SET Science College, Junagadh
kishandadhania1210@icloud.com & sojitrark3@gmail.com

The recombinant proteins are manipulated form of proteins, which is generated in various ways to produce large quantities of proteins. It is modify gene sequences and manufacture useful commercial and therapeutic products. The formation of recombinant proteins is carried out in specialized vehicles known as vectors or different expression systems. Due to recent advance in biotechnology there is different Expression System for Recombinant Proteins available (Kisung and Hilary, 2005).


"THE STRANGE, BEAUTIFUL AND POWERFUL WORLD OF MICROBES"
Jayshree Nandaniya & Abhipsa Parmar

S.E.T. science collage, Junagadh
jayshreenandaniya2@gmail.com

Here are present the evaluation process of microorganism that is show the power of microbes in it speedy growth and its efficiency and deficiency of microbial cell. Furthermore studies on effect of humongous fungus and fact about microbes. How microbes are their impact on us in various ways.
Keywords: Microorganism, efficiency and deficiency, humongous fungus


SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PYRIMIDINE - 5 - CARBONITRILE DERIVATIVES AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL SCREENING
Thanki Pragna*, Modha Jayesh

pragnathanki@gmail.com

4 - (4 - fluorophenyl) - 1, 6 - dihydro - 1 - methyl - 2 - (methylthio) - 6 - oxopyrimidine - 5 - carbonitrileused as a starting material. Reaction of 4 - (4 - fluorophenyl) - 1,6 - dihydro - 1 - methyl - 2 - (methylthio) - 6 - oxopyrimidine - 5 - carbonitrile with Hydrazine hydrate and Amine gives Hydrazino compounds and 2 - (alkyl/ substituted aryl amino) - 4 - (4 - fluorophenyl) - 1,6 - dihydro - 1 - methyl - 6 - oxopyrimidine - 5 - carbonitrile respectively. This Hydrazino compounds react with different aromatic aldehyde and s - Triazine derivatives forms Schiff's base and s - Triazine derivatives respectively. Reaction of schiff's base with Mercaptolacticacid and chloroacetylchloride yield 4 - thiazolidinones and 2 - Azetidinones respectively.Purification of all the synthesized compounds have been confirmed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and structural characterization has been done by various analytical techniques like Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H NMR), Mass Spectroscopy and Infra - Red Spectroscopy.All the synthesized compounds have been studied for their antibiotic activities against different gram positive and gram negative of bacteria at WADI (Worldwide Antimicrobial Discovery Initiative), University ofQueensland, Brisbane, Australia.


EVALUATION OF PSORIATIC ACTIVITY OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATION
Godhaniya Bhavana*, Soni Hardik

bagodhaniya@yahoo.in

We have worked on phytochemical evaluation and Anti - psoriatic activity of polyherbal formulation: Finish product (Oil) is made of different oils and powders viz., WrightiatinctoriaSalib., AdhotadavsicaNees., Solanum xanthocarpumSchard& Wendl., Tinspora cordifolia Wild., Cassia tora Linn., Trichosanthusdioca, Rubia cordifolia Linn., Terminalia chebula Gaertn., Terminalia belerica Roxb., Emblica officinalisGaertn.,Vetivera zizaniodes Linn., Neem Oil, Karanj Oil, Haridra Oil, Kalimirch Oleoresin All the oils, powder and finished product were evaluated by different standardization parameters. The drugs were selected on basis of their psoriatic action in psoriasis and skin disorder.
Key words: Finish product (Oil), Anti - psoriatic activity.


PRODRUGS: THE DRUG DEVELOPMENT
Gohel Dushyant N.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
dsr143d.don@gmail.com

It is estimated that about 10% of the drugs approved worldwide can be classified as prodrugs. Prodrugs, which have no or poor biological activity, are chemically modified versions of a pharmacologically active agent, which must undergo transformation in vivo to release the active drug. They are designed in order to improve active drug solubility bioavailability, increasing drug permeability and absorption, modifying the distribution profile, preventing fast metabolism and excretion, and reducing toxicity, the physicochemical, biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic properties of pharmacologically potent compounds. This article describes the basic functional groups that are amenable to prodrug design, and highlights the major applications of the prodrug strategy, including the ability to improve oral absorption and aqueous solubility, increase lipophilicity, enhance active transport, as well as achieve site - selective delivery. Most antitubercular agents are defined as 'prodrugs', including isoniazid and ethionamide. Thus, the prodrug approach could provide novel targets for the rational design of more effective treatments for tuberculosis (TB).


NANO MEDICINE & NANO TECHNOLOGY: THE FUTURE OF PHARMACY
Baravadiya Sheetalben R. & Chauhan Bageshree S.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh

Nano medicine is the monitoring, repair, construction and control of human biological system at the molecular level, using engineered Nano devices and Nano structured. Nano medicine can address many important medical problems by using Nano scale - structured materials and simple Nano devices that can be manufactured today, including the interaction of Nano structured materials with biological system. Nano particles with an even greater range for the early detection and therapy of brain cancer, using silica coated iron oxide Nano particles with a biocompatible poly ethylene glycol coating. The miniscule size of the particles 20 - 200nm should allow them to penetrate in to areas of the Brain that would otherwise be severely damaged by invasive surgery. Nano particles allow MRI to see a few small brain tumor cells as small as 50 microns depending on the cancer type,tumer cells can range from 5 - 50 microns each and may grow in location separate from the tumor site.


PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY
Usdad Sarita J. & Rachhadiya bansari J.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
saritausdad@gmail.com&bansari.r96@gmail.com

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of malignant Tumours is a new technique for treating cancers. The photosensitizer must be able to absorb the wavelength of light being delivered to it, and the amount of light getting to the photosensitizer depends on the characteristics of the tissue it passes through. When Exposed to light with the proper wavelength, the sensitizer produces an activated oxygen species, singlet oxygen that oxidises critical element of neoplastic cells. Since this is an entirely different process, the use of chemotherapy, ionizing radiation or surgery does not preclude the use of PDT. Different molecules and atoms absorb different wavelength of energy. Since the light energy must be absorbed to start the photochemical reaction. Photodynamic therapy is an entirely new treatment modality and its development can be likened to that of the discovery of antibiotics. Photodynamic therapy is one of the best techniques to cure many ailments which normal clinical techniques are inefficient in solving.


VIRTUAL ISSUE: BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH INCHEMICAL NEUROSCIENCE
Kansagra Chandani P.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
chandpatel97@gmail.com

The field of behavioral neuroscience aims to unravel the neural mechanisms governing the cognitive, emotional, and sensory functions that comprise human and animal behavior. Fundamentally, chemical signaling underlies the manifestation of behavior, as well as behavioral dysfunction arising from neurodegenerative diseases, psychiatric disorders, and addiction. Examining behavior at the molecular level allows us to further understand these diseases and identify new therapeutic targets. There are four major chemicals in the brain that influence our behavioral (DOSE): Dopamine, Oxytocin, Serotonin, and Endorphins.1. Dopamine is what we normally think of as the happiness drug. 2. Oxytocin is the neurochemical that has allowed us to become social creatures. It makes us feel empathy which helps us feel close and bonded to others when it's released3. If you're in a good mood, you've got serotonin to thank. And if you're in a bad mood, you've got serotonin to blame. It's a regulator.4. Endorphins are responsible for masking pain or discomfort, which explains their association with the "fight or flight" response.


RECOVERY OF NUTRIENTS FROM CHICKEN LITTER TOCREATE A SLOW - RELEASE FERTILIZER
Godhani Darshana D.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
godhanidarshana3@gmail.com

Large loads of nutrients are introduced to the Chesapeake Bay from agricultural runoff, fuelling the growth of algal blooms and jeopardizing water quality and the ecological health of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. Recently enacted regulations in Maryland have made it increasingly important to remove nutrients, namely nitrogen and phosphorus, from chicken litter. For the reason, we have devised a nutrients recovery process, in which chicken litter is mixed with water to from a high - solids slurry. The pH of this slurry is decreased to approximately 4.3 by bubbling carbon dioxide and dosing hydrochloric acid; at this pH, nitrogen and phosphorus are released from litter solids, generating a nutrient - rich solution. After solid - liquid separation, the pH of the nutrients - rich solution is increased to 8.8 through addition of sodium hydroxide. At this pH, Struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H2O), which is a slow - release fertilizer, precipitates. Trace amounts of other nutrient - laden minerals, such as potassium struvite, hydroxyapatite, newberyite, and monetite, are also generated. We postulate that nutrients loads to the Chesapeake Bay can be drastically reduced by implementing this nutrient recovery process, and that the recovered struvite can serve as an alternate source of phosphorus.


NOOTROPICS: TOWARDS THE MIND
Garala Dimpal N.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
dimpalgarala14@gmil.com

Nootropics are a category of agents that work selectively "towards the mind." Derived from the Greek words "noos" meaning "mind," and "tropein" meaning "towards," nootropics act directly on the integrative activity of the mind that occurs at the highest levels of the brain (the telencephalon). Nootropics are able to act on the full processes related to learning and memory including recall, processing, and consolidation. This selective action of nootropics also must occur while being neuroprotective, virtually free of side - effects and non - toxic.No molecule had ever been found that possessed all of these properties until 1964, while working to develop a sleep - aid, scientists modified the naturally occurring neurotransmitter GABA. A molecule that would later be known as piracetam.The properties were so unique, including the enhancement of learning and memory while being neuroprotective, that in order to categorize it, In 1972, he coined the term nootropics, meaning "towards the mind," for agents that act selectively to enhance the higher - level "integrative activity" of the brain.


SYNTHESIS OF CROTAMINE GOLD NANOPARTICLES AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THEIR BINDING ACTIVITY
Bhalodiya Khushbu C.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
Bhalodiya.ankur123@gmail.com

Crotamine is a protein found in the venom of the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, and has been shown to bind DNA and negatively - charged cell membranes. The biological activity of crotamine has potential as an anticancer agent as previous studies have demonstrated its selective preference for binding cancer cells compared to healthy cells. An effort to make use of this targeting action involves linking crotamine to gold nanoparticles. The central gold particle can serve as a hub to attach additional targeting proteins or other medical compounds into a single combined unit of delivery, forming a multifunctional drug.


AN ESSENTIAL ELEMENT IN CANCER TREATMENT - BORON
Nakrani Kinjal S.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
Nakranikinjal268@gmail.com

In the last few year boron (B) compounds became increasingly frequent in the chemotherapy of some forms of cancer with high malignancy and of inoperable cancers. Currently many researchers all over the word doing their research on boron as essential element for cancer treatment. Boron - 10 neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is treatment technique to kill cancer cells selectively without harming healthy cells nearby which is based on the reaction of boron - 10 nuclei capturing neutrons to yield high energy alpha particles having energy of 1.7 MeV. Which split into Lithium - 7 nuclei. Gamma rays and Alpha rays. The ranges of alpha particles in tissue are same order of cell diameter. Therefore, destroying of cancer cell would be very high. If 10B compound could be highly accumulated into the cancer cell. Only the cancer cell would be broken. The outcome of boron delivery should be use full to improve the limitation of BNCT.


NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY
Bhut Madhavi R.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
madhvibhut@gmail.com

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique. It is a research technique that exploits the magnetic properties of certain atomic nuclei. Two common types of NMR spectroscopy: 1H NMR, 13C NMR. The source of energy in NMR spectroscopy is radio waves. In NMR spectroscopy the effect of magnetic field is more important. Both liquid and solid type of samples can be used in NMR spectroscopy. Tetramethylsilane (TMS) used as a reference point in NMR spectroscopy. NMR spectroscopy basically provides the detailed information about the structure, dynamic, reaction state & chemical environment of molecules. To analyze the carbon - hydrogen framework in the molecule is the basic work of NMR spectroscopy.


CHEMICAL MODIFICATIONS TO RNA: A NEW LAYER OF GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION
Khunt Megha G. & Poshiya Urvashi A.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
meghakhunt26@gmail.com, poshiyaurvashi8888@gmail.com

The first chemical modi?cation to RNA was discovered nearly 60 years ago; up to now, more than 100 chemically distinct modifications have been identified in cellular RNA. With the recent development of novel chemical and/or biochemical methods, dynamic modifications to RNA have been identified in the transcriptome, including N6 - methyladenosine (m6A), inosine (I), 5 - methylcytosine (m5C), pseudouridine (?), 5 - hydroxymethylcytosine (hm5C), and N1 - methyladenosine (m1A). Collectively, the multitudes of RNA modi?cation are termed epitranscriptome, leading to the emerging field of epitranscriptomics. We discuss their chemical properties, biological functions and mechanisms, with an emphasis on their high - throughput detection methods. We also envision that future tools, particularly novel chemical biology methods, could further facilitate and enable studies in the field of epitranscriptomics.... Moreover, other (epigenetic) factors, such as histone modifications, could possibly also have an impact on DFNA5) gene expression. Another possibility is chemical modification of the RNA, which can also regulate the ex - pression of genes, the so called epitranscriptome. It is clear that gene expression is a complex process and the interplay between many different genetic, epigenetic, and epitranscriptomic factors determines the expression level of a gene.


POLYMORPHISM: THE PHENOMENON AFFECTING ON PERFORMANCE OF DRUGS.
Pansara Purvesh J.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
purveshpatel38@gmail.com

Polymorphism is the ability of solid materials to exist in two or more crystalline forms with different arrangements or conformations of the constituents in the crystal lattice. These polymorphic forms of a drug differ in the physicochemical properties like dissolution and solubility, chemical and physical stability, flow ability and hygroscopicity. These forms also differ in various important drug outcomes like drug efficacy, bioavailability, and even toxicity. Polymorphic studies are important as a particular polymorph can be responsible for a particular property which might not be exhibited by any other form. This review will discuss the applied nature of polymorphism starting from their preparation, characterization and pharmaceutical importance with a special emphasis on drugs. Polymorphism in drugs can also have direct medical implications. Medicine is often administered orally as a crystalline solid and dissolution rates depend on the exact crystal form of a polymorph. Polymorphic purity of drug samples can be checked using techniques such as powder X - ray diffraction, IR/Raman spectroscopy, and utilizing the differences in their optical properties in some cases.


NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTION AND CONVERSION
Kothadiya Raj R.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
rajkothadiya16@gmail.com

Solar energy is a promising energy source that has the potential to reduce U.S. dependence on fossil fuels. New innovations and fundamental scientific breakthroughs are required, however, to accelerate the development of solar energy technologies that are economically competitive with conventional fossil fuels. Agencies participating in the NNI have identified a number of physical phenomena where nanotechnology may play a critical role in overcoming current performance barriers to substantially improve the collection and conversion of solar energy. Certain engineered nonmaterial and nanostructures have been shown to enhance the absorption of light, increase the conversion of light to electricity, and provide better thermal storage and transport. Nanostructure artificial photosynthetic systems mimicking those found in nature will be important for the conversion of solar energy into chemical fuels. A deeper theoretical understanding of conversion and storage phenomena at the nanoscale, improvements in the nanoscale characterization of electronic properties, and developments that enable economical nanomanufacturing of robust devices will be critical to exploiting the benefits of nanotechnology for solar energy. Product lifetime and reliability of technologies incorporating nanotechnology must also meet or exceed the performance of conventional solar technologies


KEVLAR: INFO ABOUT POLYMER.
Kalariya Twinkle H.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh

A synthetic fibre of high tensile strength used especially as a reinforcing agent in the manufacture of tyres and other rubber products. The unique properties and distinct chemical composition of wholly aromatic polyamides (aramides) distinguish them and especially Kevlar from other commercial, man made fibers. Kevlar has a unique combination of high strength, high modulus, toughness and thermal stability. Kevlar has many applications, ranging from bicycle tires and racing sails to bulletproof vests, because of its high tensile strength to weight ratio by this measure it is 5 times stronger than steel. It is also used to make modern marching drumheads that withstand high impact.


MOLASSES
Tank Meviz A. & Vagadiya Deepak K.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
mevitank29@gmail.com

The objective of the present study was to produce ethanol from final sugar cane molasses and to evaluate its quality. Final cane molasses samples were obtained from Elguneid Sugar Factory. Urea was added in different concentrations (0.15%, 0.5%, and 0.25%) and used as nitrogen source to determine optimum concentration. Experiments were conducted using four treatments depending upon molasses sugar concentration which was calculated as percentages (10, 15, 20 and 25). The pH of the mash was adjusted to 4.8 using conc. sulphuric acid. 5% baker's yeast (DCL) was added. The fermentation was conducted for 72 hours, at 33? C. The microbiological analysis revealed absence of bacteria, yeasts and moulds in dilutions 10 - 3, 10 - 4, 10 - 5 of molasses samples. The yield ethanol obtained was 20 ml per 100 gm of molasses, and the maximum concentration of ethanol (96%) could be obtained when the main medium of production) molasses) includes 0.25% urea and 20% sugar concentration.


ISOCYANIDE BASED MULTICOMPONENT REACTIONS FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF HETEROCYCLES
Ankit Zinzuvadiya, Raj Vadariya & Naval Kapuriya

Department of chemistry and forensic science, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta university - junagadh 362263.
ankitsoni50.as@gmail.com

Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) are extremely popular owing to their facile execution, high atom - efficiency and the high diversity of products. The reaction was carried out in much shorter times and the yields were improved in comparison to classical conditions. MCRs also can be used to access various heterocyclic and highly functionalized scaffolds, and thus have been invaluable tools in total synthesis, drug discovery and bioconjugation. Traditional isocyanides - based MCRs utilize an external nucleophile attacking the reactive nitrilium ion, the key intermediate formed in the reaction of the imines and the isocyanides. However, when reactants with multiple nucleophilic groups (bisfunctional reactants) are used in the MCR, the nitrilium intermediate can be trapped by an intermolecular nucleophilic attack to form various heterocycles. The implications of nitrilium trapping along with widely applied conventional isocyanides - based MCRs in drug design are discussed in this review.


SOLVENT FREE SYNTHESIS AND ITS ADVANTAGES
Meswaniya Manali, Nakum Monali

Department of chemistry and forensic science bhakt kavi narsinh mehatauniversity - junagadh

The Solvent free synthesis methods are of the greatinterests in order to modernize classical procedures. This type of synthesis is cleaner and easier to perform. Solvent free synthesis is gaining importance as a tool for the synthesis of a wide variety.All synthetic processes involve the use of different solvents. Unfortunately many of the solvents are used in industry are volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which lead to environmental damage, through pollution, risks to human health and to resource depletion, we need to develop and apply more environmentally friendly approaches. So, all traditional and old synthetic routes obviously give adverse effects to the society. Green chemistry provides "Green" paths for different synthetic routes using non - hazardous solvents and environmental - friendly chemicals.


NANOMEDICINE: AN ENDLESS REVOLUTION
Arti Trada & Darshana Butani

Department of chemistry and forensic science bhakt kavi narsinh mehatauniversity - junagadh

Nanomedicine is defined as the monitoring, repairconstruction and control of human biological systems at the molecular level using engineered nanodevices and nanostructures. Targeting pharmaceuticals, therapeutic and diagnostic agents is at the forefront of projects in nanomedicine. These involve the identification of precise targets (cells and receptors) related to specific clinical conditions and choice of the appropriate nano carrier to achieve the required responses while minimizing the side effects. Mononuclear phagocytes dendritic cells, endothelial cells, and tumour cell are key targets. Today nanotechnology and nano - science approaches to particle design and formulation are beginning to expand the market for many drugs and are forming the basis for a highly profitable Place within the industry but some predicted benefits are hyped.


ORGANIC AZIDES: AN UNIQUE CLASS OF COMPOUND
Harsha Padhariya*, Bansi Dholakiya and Naval Kapuriya

Department of Chemistry and Forensic science, Bhakt Kavi Narsinh Mehta University, Junagadh

Since the discovery of organic azides by Peter Grieß more than 140 years ago, numerous syntheses of these energy - rich molecules have been developed. In more recent time in particular, completely new perspectives have been developed for their use in peptide chemistry, combinatorial chemistry, and heterocyclic synthesis.Organic azides have assumed an important position at the interface between chemistry, biology, medicine, and materials science. In this Review, the fundamental characteristics of azides chemistry and current developments are presented. The focus will be placed on cycloaddtions, aza ylide chemistry, and the synthesis ofheterocycles. Furtherreactions and application of organic azides.


GRAPHENE - A FUTURE MATERIAL
Arvind K. Barot & Vrajesh D. Panchal

B.N.Patel Institute of Paramedical and Science, Anand.
Barotarvind765@gmail.com, panchalvrajesh998@gmail.com

Today, a new material has the potential to alter the future. Dubbed a "supermaterial," graphene has researchers the world over scrambling to better understand it. The material's long list of superlative traits make it seem almost magical, but it could have very real and drastic implications for the future of physics, chemistry, medical and engineering. The first isolated sample of graphene was discovered in 2004 by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov at the University of Manchester.The simplest way to describe graphene is that it is a single, thin layer of graphite — the soft, flaky material used in pencil lead. For their research in 2010 Geim and Novoselov were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery. The wonders of graphene are numerous - - it can enable flexible electronic components, enhance solar cell capacity, filter the finest subatomic particles and revolutionize batteries. Now, the "supermaterial" may one day be used to test for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS - - a progressive, neurodegenerative disease which is diagnosed mostly by ruling out other disorders, according to new research from the University of Illinois at Chicago published in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. Graphene is an extremely diverse material, and can be combined with other elements (including gases and metals) to produce different materials with various superior properties.


"FLIPPED" METAL OXIDE CAGE CAN SORT CO2 FROM CO
Joshi Chirag H.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
chiragcrick111@gmail.com

A Japanese research team led by Kanazawa University studied host - guest interactions in vanadate clusters. V12 is a spherical bowl that hosts small molecules in its interior. The team created empty (guest - free) V12 for the first time. One of the 12 units of VO5 was found to flip inwards to fill the void vacated by the guest. Empty V12 could absorb CO2capturebut rejected CO, offering a way to separate these molecules for CO2 capture. How do you separate carbon dioxide from carbon monoxide? One way, showcased by a new study from Kanazawa University, is to use a bowl of vanadium. More precisely, a hollow, spherical cluster of vanadate molecules can discriminate between CO and CO2, allowing potential uses in CO2 storage and capture.


AROMA OF RAIN
Mori Presita Udaysinh

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
presitamori1111@gmail.com

The article explain that, we present a study into the use of smell for searchingv digital photo collections.petrichor is the term coined by Australian scientists In 1964 to describe the unique ,earthy smell associated with rain.It is caused the water from the rain,along with certain compounds like,ozone,geosmin,and Plant oils.& In soil,stearic acid and palmitic acid are common plant oils.when itrains we get the strong yet pleasant aroma from the wet earth and clean air Bre - eze .it is both appealing and satisfying; giving a sense of relation and has a sooth - ing effect .This pleasant aroma not only has been investigated by scientists,butBy the experts from the perfume from the perfume industry as well. Ofcaurse rain itself has no scent.But moments before a rain event, an "earthy"smell known as pe - trichor does permeate the air.A by product of their activity is an organic compound Called geosmin which contributes to the petrichor scent.


SUSTAINABLEPLASTICS
Dafada Prakash M.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
pdafda1@gmail.com

Sustainable Polymersare the plastics which fulfills the demands of the consumers without damaging our environment, health and economy. production of Sustainable plastics uses less water, resources, renewable energy and produces less waste.while traditional plastics are prepared from petroleum products and byproducts sustainable plastics are prepared from plant products and recyclable Chemicals through bio - engineering.Traditional plastics are known to cause serious health hazards, arenon - biodegradable and improper disposal of them causes various forms of pollution.Researchers are working to develop an alternative polymer which would not cause any health issue and will decompose over course of time, thus sustainable plastics are environment friendly.Recent years have seen the rise of a number of bio based sustainable Polymers like Sorona fibers, polylactic acid etc.which are partially orwholly derived from plants .but more research is required to develop their properties and replace traditional polymers


DRUG DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT
Aghera Mansi K.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
agheramansi22@gmail.com

This presentation provides a brief overview of the processes of drug discovery and development. Our aim is to help scientists whose research may be relevant to drug discovery and development of their research report in a way that appropriately places their findings within the drug discovery and development process and there by support effective transactions of preclinical research to humans.One overall theme of our article is that the processes is sufficiently long, complex, and expensive so that many biological targets must be considered for every new medicine eventually approved for clinical use and new research tool's may be needed to investigate each new target.Studies that contribute to solving any of the many scientific and operational issues involved in the development process can improve the efficiency of the process. An awareness of these issues allows the early implementation of measure to increase the opportunity for ssucces.


POLYMERS AND THEIR CLASSIFICATION
Vachhani Janvi B.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
janvivachhani577@gmail.com

Polymer is a substance which has a molecular structure built up chiefly or completely from a large number of similar unitsbounded together and form a long chain structure.It have a highermolecular massand it is composed of large number ofrepeating units of identical structure which are known as monomers. First polymer was made by Leo Baekeland in 1907. It was first synthetic polymer phenol formaldehyde resin called Bakelite. Polymers are also found in nature likestarch, protein, cellulose are known as neutral polymers. Polymers synthesized for commerciallyuse are known as synthetic polymers like polythene and other plastics. Polymers are broadly classified on the basis of main eight permeates. Originally, they are classified as neutral, synthetic and semi synthetic polymers. On the basis of their structure, they are classified as homo polymers and hetero polymers. Polymeric structure classified them into linear polymers, branched polymers and cross linked polymers. According to the arrangements of monomers, they are classified as block polymers and graft polymers. Based on tacticity they are classified as iso tactic, syndiotactic and a tactic polymer. Thermal behaviour divide the polymer into thermoplastic and thermostat category.On the basis of molecular force they are classified as elastomer and fibre. Method of synthesis divide the polymer into additional polymersand condensed polymers.Polymers on thebasis of degeneration classified as biodegradable and non - biodegradable polymers. These polymers are useful for Human being in so many ways.


GRAPHENE OVER VIEW
Chovatiya Dhruv Rajanikantbhai

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
dhruvpatel.dp662@gmail.com

Graphene, the flat, two - dimensional (2D) monolayer of carbon atoms theoretically can be considered as the basic building block for all other graphitic materials with different dimensionalities. It can be wrapped up into 0D fullerene, rolled into 1D nanotube or stacked into 3D graphite. Integrating graphene components with silicon - based electronics allows substantial performance improvements, thus it has the potential to make a profound impact in information and communication technology (ICT) in the short and long terms. The 2D crystal of graphene has special properties, which are superior to those of other materials, thus graphene can reckon on diverse applications in electronics packaging. For example, the mechanical flexibility and chemical durability of graphene are very high, thus its application for touch - screen devices would prove far more long - lasting and would open the door for flexible devices. The mechanical, chemical, electronic and barrier properties of graphene make it attractive for applications in composite materials by bringing extra functionality to them. In the paper those devices will be reviewed, which are estimated to be on the market within three to five years.


FIGHTING STRESS AND ANXIETY
Kunadiya Yukta Bhikhubhai & Barad Sejal Jitubhai

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
yuktakundiya@gmail.com, Sejalrajput270@gmailcom

Anxiety is the psychophysiology signal that the stress response has been initiated. The literature suggest that neuroendocrine alteration in response to conformation with a stressor may influence immunocompetence. Post traumatic disorder that develops after a shocking experience of labour is also known as "birth trauma". There are a diversity of anxiety disorder comprising generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia,social anxiety disorder,separation anxiety disorder, agoraphobia ,panic disorder and selective mutism.sometimes provides use anxiety medications (benzodiazepines), such as diazepam (volium) or lorazepam (ativan), but these approaches are generally used on a short - term basis due to the risk of addition.


ASPARTAME: ARTIFICIAL SWEETENER
Chhatrala Nehal Maheshbhai & Paghdar Abhay Dilasukhbhai

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
np59637@gmail.com, Abhayapaghada1@gmail.com

Aspartame a non - saccharides sweetener has been surrounded with controversy for a long time. This review was to enlighten the public on its safety or otherwise. Several publications on aspartame and it's metabolites we're reviewed. Adverse effects of aspartame as reported were mostly on Animal studies and in humans with certain dysfunction. Normal individuals were not affected though. These lead me to cautiously state that aspartame may be safe after all. Aspartame (APT) is an artificial sweetener present in most diet drinks or soda and in other diet Products, while some are sold along in brand as mentioned earlier. It is about 180 times sweeter than sugar in typical concentration with the energy value of sugar. APT (IUPAC): name N - (L - a - Aspartyl) - L - phenylalanine, 1 - methyl ester and molecular formula: C14H18N2O5. Aspartame (APT) is metabolized into its constituents: aspartic, phenylalanine and Methanol. That is non - hygiene for our body for certain level.


UNIVERSAL WASTE AND SCRAP MANAGEMENT
Devanshi Bagiya & Riddhi Parmar

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
bagiyadevanshi99@gmail.com, parmarriddhi86@gmail.com

Waste and scrap management is the Major and critical issue by which we are so much aware and it is the main and Demonstrated point in Environmental studies for all the fields.Municipal government which are legally responsible for building and maintaining waste disposal network and they are doing their best efforts also.Waste minimization Reuse,Re - manufacturing or Re - Cycling of the product at the end of life cycle and also so many Issues are there that can be Address Easily.The problem of the waste generation and management in the most cities especially in the developing one of the incredible environmental problem facing in the urban centers. All the problem create by human population,Rural - Urban Migration is in increasing through urbanization,increase rate in industrialization yet services and support is not sizeable enough to control high level of solid and liquid waste management.these all problem can be handling by new and advanced technology like IOT (Internet of Things) and many Embedded Devices which will make the whole waste management concept to new horizon.And it can be more power - full by increasable updating the implemented technology by adding new features and functionality to existing systems and technologies and at ramping up stages it will become the "UNIVERSAL solution for the waste and scrap management".


THE HYDROGEN BOMB
Chhatrala Pallavi M. & Dodiya Swati B.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
pallavipatel45915@gmail.com, dodiyaswati28@gmail.com

Nuclear fission is induced by bombarding sub atomic particles with the atomic nucleus of radioactive substance.this process induces a chain reaction wherein neutrons are released along with humungous heat energy,the neutrons emitted which increases expontentially until the substance is decayed completely. Further these neutrons can trigger yet more fission events.Energy released in fission is in form of kinetic energy of fission fragments and electromagnetic radiation (gamma Ray's).in nuclear reactor this energy is coverted to heat by collision of particales and gamma Ray's with reactor walls and working fluid.typical fission event releases about 200Mev of energy.Fusion of lighter nuclei into heavier nuclei leads to loss of Mass but not nucleons this loss of Mass is the binding energy in accordance with E=mc,the difference in mass which we find is the binding energy.for a molecule to be broken to it's atoms we required such an energy that accounts for the difference in mass which we earlier called it as mass defect.In hydrogen bomb,the explosive energy is got by fusion process alone. This is triggered by using fission reaction to compress and heat the fusion fuel.


CHEMISTRY FOR AIR CONDITIONER
Mokariya Pooja A. & Jivani Janki M.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
mokariyapooja9460@gmail.com, Jankijivani1805@gmail.com

Air conditioner helps to cool the air in hot summer day. However,air conditioner mainly contain fan, compressor, evaporator, condenser, expansion valve and main component cooling gas which helps to cool hot air in summer. The cooling gas is generally known as refrigerant. There are generally two types of refrigerant one is current refrigerant and second one is next generation refrigerant. Well known current refrigerant are CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs. These current refrigerants have their diverse effect on environment/atmosphere which is known as ozone depletion.Thus, now a days it is better to use next generation refrigerant which have less diverse effect on environment.


NANOTECHNOLOGY OF MEDICINE
Dodiya Param M. & Dodiya Prakash P.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
paramdodiya0@gmail.com, prakashdodiya1999@gmail.com

Nanotechnology is the study of extremely small structures, having size of 0.1 to 100 nm. Nano medicine is a relatively new field of science and technology.Brief explanation of various types of pharmaceutical nano systems is given. Classification of nano materials based on their dimensions is given.An application of in various fields such as health and medicine, electronics, energy and environment, is discussed in detail. Applications of nano particles in drug delivery, protein and peptide delivery, cancer are explained.Applications of various nano systems in cancer therapy such as carbon nano tube, dendrimers, nano crystal, nano wire, nano shells etc.are given. The advancement in nano technology helps in the treatment of neuro degenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Applications of nano technology in tuberculosis treatment, the clinical application of nanotechnology in Operative dentistry, in Ophthalmology, in surgery, Visualization, Tissue engineering, Antibiotic resistance, immune response are discussed in this article.Nano pharmaceuticals can be used to detect diseases at much earlier stages.


PLASMA STATE
Divraniya Vishal R. & Bera Nayan J.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
divraniyavishal8@gmail.com, nayanbera12345@gmail.com

Plasma is state of matter. Plasma is a hot ionized gas consisting of approximately equal numbers of positively charged ions and negatively charged electrons. The characteristics of plasmas are significantly different from those of ordinary neutral gases so that plasmas are considered a distinct "fourth state of matter." it is made by heating a gas until its electrons have sufficient energy to escape the hold of the positively charged nuclei. More exotic of source of plasma include particles in nuclear fusion reactors and weapons. it is reacts to electron magnetic field and conducts electricity.it is used of television synthesis of coating in plasma flows,Plasma in the stars and in the tenuous space between them makes up over 99% of the visible universe and perhaps most of that which is not visible. On earth we live upon an island of "ordinary" matter. The different states of matter generally found onearth are solid, liquid, and gas. The impact of high temperature and velocity of the structure and erosion of the materials and water vapor plasma technology.


MESOPOROUS MATERIAL FORDRUG DELIVERY
Naghera Sanjay B. & Dedaniya Priyank

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
sanjaynaghera73@gmail.com, dedaniyapriyank1508@gmail.com

Research on mesoporous materials for biomedical purposes has experienced an outstanding increase during recent years. Since 2001, when MCM - 41 was first proposed as drug - delivery system, silica - based materials, such as SBA - 15 or MCM - 48, and some metal-organic frameworks have been discussed as drug carriers and controlled - release systems. Mesoporous materials are intended for both systemic - delivery systems and implantable local - delivery devices. The latter application provides very promising possibilities in the field of bone - tissue repair because of the excellent behavior of these materials as bioceramics. This Mini review deals with the advances in this field by the control of the textural parameters, surface functionalization, and the synthesis of sophisticated stimuli - response systems.


PETRICHOR: THE SMELL OF RAIN
Ram Jyoti J. & Kumbhani Urja N.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
jyotiram925@gmail.com, urjakumbhani23@gmail.com

Do you know the smell of the air before or after it rains? It isn't the water that you smell, but a mixture of other chemicals. The odour you smell before rain comes from ozone, a form of oxygen which is produced by lightning, and ionized gases in the atmospere. The name given to the characteristic odour of rain after it rain, especially following a dry spell, is petrichor. Petrichor is caused primarily by a molecule called geosmin. Geosmin is produced by streptomyces, a gram - positive type of actinobacteria. The chemical is released by the bacteria when they die. Humans are very sensitive to geosmin and can detect it at levels as low as 5 parts per trillion. Geosmin isn't the only molecule that you smell after it rains. It has been analyzed air from rain storms and found ozone, geosmin and also aromatic plant oils. When a raindrop hits a porous surface it traps tiny pockets of air. The researchers think these aerosols carry the rain like aroma. Scientists have long observed that rain drop can trap and release aerosols when they fall on water, but this is the first time they've observed the process happening on soil.


BEET ROOT (HERBAL ALTERNATIVE TO SYNTHETICINDICATOR)
Vasudha Rajubhai Vekariya & Kishan Gopalbhai Domadiya

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
v.r.vekariya99@gamil.com, kishudomadiya98@gamail.com

In Acid Base Titrations, Indicators are used to show a sharp color changes at End point which are mostly Organic Dyes. Due to Environmental Pollution, Availability and Cost, the search of Natural Acid Base Indicator was started. In the present study the extract of Beta Vulgaris (Beet root) was used to replace the Synthetic indicators due to the Disadvantage of Less Availability and High Cost of Synthetic Dyes. Extract of Beta Vulgaris gives sharp and intense color changes as compare to synthetic indicator. The extracted were evaluated by using Strong Acid - Strong Base, Strong Acid - Weak Base, Weak Acid - Strong Base and Weak Acid - Weak Base. In all the titration all these titrations the extract was found to be very useful and Accurate for indicating the Neutralizing point. Ethanolic Extract was found to be very Useful, Economical, Simple and Accurate for titration. The proposed Herbal Indicator can be used as a Suitable instead of synthetic indicator.


CHEMISTS SYNTHESIZE "GAME - CHANGING" ANTIBIOTIC TEIXOBACTIN.
VIRAPARIYA BRIJESH A. & GOHEL NIDHI P.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
brijspatel0098@gmail.com, gohelninu1999@gmail.com

Resistance to antibiotics has grown out to be serious health dilemma. Despite this serious health crisis, no new antibiotics have been revealed since last 30 y. A new ray of hope in the form of teixobactin has come out of the dark which can prove to be effective in defeating resistance.This new antibiotic has an interesting mechanism of action against bacteria.Teixobactin represents the first member of a newly discovered class of antibiotics that act through inhibition of cell wall synthesis.It was isolated with a new tool, the iChip.Teixobactin, a cyclic undecapeptide, displays excellent antibacterial activities against a range of pathogenic bacteria, such as Methicillin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.This review article highlights various facets of teixobactin. Its chemistry, mode of action, in vitro and in vivo.This article has been mainly communicated with an objective to provide information about teixobactin which has emerged as ray of hope for fighting antibiotic resistance.Although teixobactin is at an early stage of development and there are no guarantees it will make it to market, the use of the iChip will hopefully result in the discovery of further potential new antibiotics.


TEIXOBACTIN ANTIBIOTICS
Nanera Rimpal P. & Timba Bhavisha A.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
b.a.timba77@gmail.com, rimpalnanera78@gmail.com

Antibiotics has grown out to be a serious health concern. Despite this serious health crisis, no new antibiotics have been discovered since the last 30 years. A new ray of hope in the form of teixobactin has come out of the dark, which could demonstrate the potential to be effective in countering resistance. This new antibiotic has an interesting mechanism of action against bacteria. The discovery of this wonderful compound has evolved as a major breakthrough especially in this era of antibiotic catastrophe. This review article highlights various facets of teixobactin that include chemistry, mode of action, in vitro and in vivo activities. Though the compound has not yet undergone clinical studies, its effect on mice models has given hope for overpowering resistance. This review attempts to provide information about teixobactin and its potential for fighting as antibiotic resistance.


NANO FERTILIZERS
Vadher Dhruval L. & Kachhadiya Aelavis D.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
dhruvalvadher@gmail.com, aelaviskachhadiya@gmail.com

An Indian agro scientist has innovated nano fertilizer. Nano fertilizer made up of nano sized nitrogen molecule coated in a polymer coating that protect fertilizer from the element this coating contain nano sized "biosensors" made up of a very specific chemical compound that allow the fertilizer to be released in the soil when plant needs it. Nano fertilizers have potential to increase crop productivity through slow or controlled delivery. It's prepared by with the help of microbial enzyme for breakdown of the respective salt into nano form. Nano fertilizer in India and for the first time in the world developed biosynthesis process to make nano fertilizer. The term nanotechnology also poses some risk and problem towards health and also towards the environment.


POISON CHEMISTRY - CYANIDES COMPOUNDS
Piyush Kamaliya & Naitik Finava

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
piyushkamaliya00@gmail.com, Naitikfinava6161@gmail.com

Cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C=N. This group, known as the cyano group, consists of a carbon atom triple - bonded to a nitrogen atom. Cyanide has been used for centuries as a poison, but was first identified in 1782 by the Swedish chemist Scheele; in fact, it's thought Scheele's death may have been contributed to by cyanide exposure. During WWI, the French attempted to use hydrocyanic acid, then cyanogen chloride, in chemical warfare. In WWII, The Nazis used hydrogen cyanide in the form of Zyklon B to kill millions in their concentration camps in inorganic cyanides, the cyanide group is present as the anion CN - . For the salts such as sodium cyanide and potassium cyanide, these compounds are highly toxic. Hydrocyanic acid, it is obtained by acidification of cyanide salts. Organic cyanides are usually called nitriles. In nitriles, the CN group is linked by a covalent bond to carbon. For example, in acetonitrile, the cyanide group is bonded to methyl (CH3). Some nitriles, which occur naturally as cyanohydrin cyanide is mainly produced for the mining of gold and silver. It helps dissolve these metals and their ores. In the cyanide process, finely ground high - grade ore is mixed with the cyanide, low - grade ores are stacked into heaps and sprayed with a cyanide solution. The precious metals are complexes by the cyanide anions to form soluble derivatives, e.g., [Au(CN)2] - and [Ag(CN)2] In a nutshell.


ICE STUPA
Kher Pradhyuman M.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
Pratapsinhk1999@gmail.com

In Ladakh, northern India, the recent development of an "ice stupa" suggests a new model for climate - adaptive design thinking. Here, the region's shrinking supply of glacial meltwater has led to the creation of a novel water management strategy, in which community involvement, ecological awareness, and religious iconography have been harnessed to make the most of a diminishing natural resource. Beyond simply providing a water cache for agricultural use, the ice stupas of Ladakh reveal a sophisticated response to social, environmental, and cultural constraints. In so doing, the project provides a working model for water husbandry in northern India and valuable insight into the emerging practice of designing for climate change.


LIQUID CRYSTAL
Seva Savani

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
savaniseva11@gmail.com

The control of molecular alignment in liquid - crystal phases at macroscopic scales has been investigated extensively because of its importance in optical or optoelectronic applications, such as liquid - crystal displays. It is well established that liquid crystals can be aligned by an applied electric field, a magnetic field, a shear - flow field, mechanical grooving of the substrate surface or stretching of liquid - crystal polymer thin films. Here we report a new mechanism for liquid - crystal alignment that uses polarized laser light. We find that nematic liquid crystals in an illuminated region become oriented perpendicular to the direction of the electric - field polarization of the laser and remain aligned in the absence of the laser radiation. The liquid crystals can be reoriented again by subsequent illumination. This technique might have applications for large - area displays, optical memories, binary optics, adaptive optics and molecular micro - assembly.


THE CHEMISTRY OF MUMMIFICATION
Rathod Divya R. & Kachhela Dixita J.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
rathoddivya927@gmail.com

Mummification is considered one of the most important in the history of ancient Egyptian civilization. The artificial Mummification process started in the fourth dynasty during the old kingdom reached its peck in the new kingdom. This review focuses on the usage of Mummification materials such as Mummification, Natron salt, Vegetable materials, Beeswax, Bitumen, Lichen and Gum Arabic in ancient Egypt to determine their effectiveness in the preservation of the body. For each material, the history, and the role in the preservation of the body are presented. it is shown that Natron salt was the most important material to desiccate a corps, and that the Vegetable materials mentioned above have anti - bacterial properties that protected the body from microbial attack.so we can say that from above discussion we can store our body and other important object for long time by use these formula.


HEROIN - THE MOST ADDICTIVE DRUG EVER
Odedara Chandani Virambhai

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
chandaniodedara@gmail.com

Previous studies have shown that abstinent heroin addicts exhibit an attentional bias to heroin - related stimuli. It has been suggested that attentional bias may represent a vulnerability to relapse into drug use. In the present study, the predictive value of pre - treatment attentional bias on relapse was examined in a population of abstinent heroin addicts. Further the effects of cue exposure therapy (CET) on attentional bias was studied. Design participants were assigned randomly to receive nine session of CET or placebo psychotherapy. Setting AN in - patients drug abuse treatment setting. Participant's abstinent heroin - dependent patients. Measurements participant completed the emotional stroop task both before and after completing treatment. Finding pre - treatment attentional bias predicted relapse at 3 month follows - up even when controlling for self - reported craving at the lest session. Further attentional bias was reduced in both group after therapy. Independent of treatment condition. Conclusion: attentional bias may tap an important component of drug department as it is a predictor of opiate relapse. However, CET does not specifically reduce attentional bias.


GREEN CHEMISTRY IN INDIA
Varu Vrushabh P. & Batak Soheb A.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
varuvrushabh65@gmail.com, bataksoheb@gmail.com

Our environment, which is endowed by nature, needs to be protected from ever increasing chemical pollution. The challenge for the institution and industries is to come together and pursue development is the field of greener chemistry by reducing for eliminating the use and generation of hazardous substances. We have organized a national and international symposium for promoting green chemistry in India, which has provided the platform for interaction of concepts among the leading scientists. The main idea behind this to activate work toward green chemistry for which involvement of academic, industrial, and governmental and non - governmental bodies is needed collectively, which will help the designing and development of environment - friendly chemistry practices in India.


POLLUTION CHANGE IN OCEAN CHEMISTRY
Maradiya Fena D. & Maradiya Jinal R.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
fenamaradiya@gmail.com, Jinalmaradia@gmail.com

This article explain the cause consequences and cure of marine pollution. Three different kinds of marine pollution have been categorized - cause through land, caused through air and cause by means of transportation. The major marine pollutants are 10bilience tones of ballast water with invasive. 3.5 million Metric tones of oil annually. Major marine pollutants like metal, solid waste, oil etc. The pollutants from the land like industry wastes and other wastes are discharge in to sewerage and more untreated waters of form fertilizer and pesticides run off from agriculture lands which further is disposed into the waterway. Daily use of plastics is also contributing to the Marine pollution oil have a hazardous impact on marine life. Microorganisms and other animals eat the plastics assuming it as food and die off. 80% of non biological marine pollution come from land based activities riverine flow in to the sea carry pollutants from the entire catchment area. There are many different enacted legislation which have provided for the prevention of the environment .this paper shall chalk out the steps to prevent the pollution that has been caused by endless pollutants.


BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS
Makwana Meet P. & Trambadiya Meet J.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
makwanameet303@gmail.com, meet27368@gmil.com

Biodegradable polymers are a special class of polymers that break down after its intended purpose by bacterial decomposition process to result in natural by products such as gases, water, biomass and inorganic salts. Biodegradable polymers consist of ester, amide or ether bonds. One of these group is agropolymers and other consist of biopolyester. Agropolymers include polysaccharide and biopolyester include polylactic acid and polyhydroxybutyrte. In break down when no monomers left it called complete biodegradable. Two primary mechanism of bio degradation. First is aerobic biodegradation and second one is anaerobic. Biodegradable polymers are use in medical, agriculture and packing materials. They are also use in genetherapy, skin adhesive, surgical glues.the various uses that especially heart valve replacement and blood vessels are made of polymers like decron, Teflon, and polyurethane.


DDT AFFECTED IN HUMAN BODY AND ENVIRONMENTAL
Sharma Pallavi M. & Barad Ananjana A.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
palvisharma713@gmail.com, baradanjana44@gmail.com

DDT, also known as dichlro - diphyl - trichlroethane, belongs to a class of pesticides called organochlotide. The introduction and has been credited with the elimination of malaria from the United States and Europe. 1 - 1 - 1 trichlro - 2, 2 bis ethane was the first widely used ethane was the first widely used synthetic pesticide and is extremely persistent in both the environment and the human body. DDT is also known to have had major environmental consequences and has been associated with dramatic declines in many animal populations. The effect of DDT on body functions is purely dependent on the degree of exposure… The DDT affects the estrous cycle of exposed animals by altering the hormonal functions. In male rats, DDT has been observed to alter spermatogenesis and reduce aggression behaviour. Organochlorines of liver function, skin and the nervous system. Of more general interest, however, is evidence suggesting insidious effects of background exposure. Of particular concern is the finding of neonatal hypotonia or hyporeflexia in relation to PCB exposure.


NANO - UREA
Mitesh Godhani J. & Nirbhay Busa M.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
nirbhaybusa@gmail.com, miteshgodhani123@gmail.com

The method for synthesizing of nano urea involve using a nano channel reactor. Ammonia and carbon dioxide are used as raw materials for producing nano urea. The method allow for the production of urea nano particle at high conversion rates. Introducing ammonia gas and supercritical carbon dioxide gas intoa nano channel reactor allowing the ammonia and carbon dioxide to react to form a urea solution. Passing the pressurize urea solution through a nozzle to form a spray of droplets of the urea solution, and drying the droplets to form urea particle. The naon urea particle can be used as fertilizers and provide for continuous release of ammonia and its conversion to nitrates in the soil. The biuret impurity in nano urea can be less than 0.3%. The particle can have lower moisture absorption rate. The use of nano urea fertilizers can result in over 100% increase in grain yield. The use of nano urea fertilizers can result in up to 200% increase in biomass production. The particles can have a charge which can either be positive or even negative if desired.When positively charged, the particles can form ionic bonds to most soils which are negatively charged resulting in greater nitrogen fixation. The particles can have controlled hydrolysis rates for better and longer nitrate absorption rate from ammonia thereby reducing the loss. The particles have low evaporation rates because nano - urea binds with the soil quickly. The particles can be applied via fertigating.


STORAGE OF HYDROGEN AS A FUEL
Baidiyavadra Radhika & Varotariya Ankita

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
radhikaahir2311@gmail.com, ankitaahir9263@gmail.com

Hydrogen is notable for its unique properties making it the most viable alternative fuel for electricity generation and engine power. This element is highly abundant and is being used in numerous applications industrially. But hydrogen can be an important source of fuel and with the proper knowledge of its different technologies, innovations for hydrogen fuel production can then be addressed. Steam reforming of natural gas is the widely used hydrogen production had been a pressing issue. Hence, a shift to a cleaner and more sustainable primary energy source is very essential. This paper gives brief background of the different hydrogen production techniques using two primary energy resources as well as the developments, the gaps, and the further improvements needed to be made. Note however, that comprehensive R & D details should be sought in specialist papars for a more through background. The sustainability of hydrogen production technology lies from where it is produced, thus this paper also aims to highlight the hydrogen fuel production from biomass citing its developments and its potential for high hydrogen yield.


METHANE PRODUCTION FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
Talaviya Akshay Alpeshbhai & Detroja Vivek Kamleshbhai

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
akshaypatel991370@gmail.com, vivekdetroja999@gmail.com

An analysis is presented of possible worldwide production of methane from anaerobic decay of organic municipal and Industrial wastes in landfills. The amount of methane released to the atmosphere from this source may now be in the range of 30 - 70*106 T/yr, which is between 6% and 18% of the total CH4 source. By far, most of this emission comes from the industrialized world. Release rates from these countries have been increasing steadily during the Past decades, but growth rates are now gradually stagnating. In the feature, the contribution from developing nations is expected to grow rapidly because of increasing population and urbanization. Consequently, methane release from landfills may become one of the main sources of atmospheric methane in the next century.


AN OVERVIEW OF NANOGEL DRUG DELIVERYSYSTEM
Bhalodia Dhruviben B. & Faldu Twinkleben R.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
dhruvibhalodiya239@gmail.com, twinklefaldu01@gmail.com

Soft Nano - microgels made by natural and synthetic polymers their porosity and biocompatibility can be integrated with various biohybrid systems. Biohybrid nanogels are cross - linked colloidal network that consist of biological and synthetic polymers as building blocks. The control over the defined assembly of nano - objects with nm - Precision is important to create system and materials with enhanced properties. For example, Metamaterials. They can support - living cells as a scaffold. Bioactive molecule as a drug carrier or encapsulate microorganism as a Semi - permeable membrane. One side, the encapsulating material can respond to external stimulus and release the cargo. Otherside, can respond physical and chemical properties. Nanogel prepared water - soluble synthetic polymers. In nature, inorganic nano - objects with unique features. For example, Magnetosomes. They chain - like structure, complex networks and stars. Nano - object creating biohybrid materials with unique electronic, Photonic, Plasmonic and Magnetic properties. The dynamics embedded in this bio - hybrid system to dissect their designs and sophisticated functions and recent development on the synthesis and properties of Biohybrid Nanogels.


PETROCHEMICAL
Vadaliya Yash A. & Thesiya Mayank D.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
yash30102000vadaliya@gmail.com, mayankpatel7698@gmail.com

Natural gas conversion to pertrochemical, principally. benzene naphthalene, toluene as well as ethylene under non - oxidative conditions was examined in a fixed bed flow reactor at 700° C and gaseous hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 1500 ml g - 1 h - 1 at time on stream ranging from 5 min to 4 hour. Using catalysts containing 6.0%Mo/H - ZSM - 5 promoted with Pd or Ir metal. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, TPD, and TGA. The addition of Pd or Ir to 6%Mc/H - ZSM - 5 catalysis promoted ethylene production but inhibited the cyclization reaction to aromatics owing to the strong interaction between these noble metals and the framework. Al species, which were attached to the acid sites during the impregnation process. Coke deposition on the catalysts was found to decrease upon addition of 0.5wt% of Pd or Ir to 6%Mo/H - ZSM - 5 catalyst owing to the hydrogenation activity of these metals. Marine oil pollution is a constant occurrence and will continue as long as oil and oil products are important commodities transported by see routes. Among the numerous negative consequences of oil pollution are its effects on marine wildlife. There is much evidence that oil spills are responsible for massive seabird death. However, the constant, low level releases of petrochemicals probably contribute to the harmful effects of oil pollution on seabird populations. In an attempt to rectify the damage inflicted on seabirds by accidental oil discharged, rehabilitation centers are established for the cleaning and care of affected wildlife. Unfortunately, there is evidence that the ingestion of oil by preening and the handling stress undergone by birds in these centers lowers their ability to survive and reproduce following release to their native habitats. Although the reasons for this are unclear, there is the suggestion that both oil and handling will induce immunosuppressive mechanisms that ultimately predispose birds to infections and immune - mediated diseases, as well as reproductive, behavioural, and other problems. Thus, there are questions concerning the effectiveness of intervention measures currently being used in the rehabilitation of seabirds.


SILVER NANOPARTICLES
Malaviya Parth D. & Fuletra Dhaval

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
parthmalaviya000@gmail.com

Over the past few decades, nanoparticles of noble metals such as silver exhibited significantly distinct physical, chemical and biological properties from their bulk counterparts. Nano - size particles of less than 100 nm in diameter are currently attracting increasing attention for the wide range of new applications in various fields of industry. Such powders can exhibit properties that differ substantially from those of bulk materials, as a result of small particle dimension, high surface area, quantum confinement and other effects. Most of the unique properties of nanoparticles require not only the particles to be of nano - sized, but also the particles be dispersed without agglomeration. Discoveries in the past decade have clearly demonstrated that the electromagnetic, optical and catalytic properties of silver nanoparticles are strongly influenced by shape, size and size distribution, which are often varied by varying the synthetic methods, reducing agents and stabilizers. Accordingly, this review presents different methods of preparation silver nanoparticles and application of these nanoparticles in different fields.


OZONE: A POLLUTANT AND PROTECTOR GAS
Kasundra Abhay D.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
abhaykasundra5678@gmail.com

The natural balance of ozone in the stratosphere is due to continous formation of ozone from oxygen and dissociation of it into oxygen in presence of UV radiation. Amount on ozone can be determined by colorimetric method. It it poisonous gas near the earth surface in biosphere and protective sheild in stratosphere. Depletion of ozone layer and formation of hole in it is due to reaction of CFCS, NOX, OH, H2O with ozone in stratosphere.Direct entrance of UV - B in the biosphere causes skin cancer, cataract, blindness, supression of immune system. Protector ozone layer can be saved by replacing CFCS, by HFCS, by reducing supersonic flight & nuclear explosions, by refilling ozone in depleted area and by conducting public awareness about importance of ozone layer.


CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN MILK AND PUBLIC HEALTH CONCERNS
Sondarva Malay V. & Chauhan Harshil P.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh

Chemical contaminants in milk comprise chemical hazards that may introduce during milk production, dairy processing or packaging. Veterinary drugs, heavy metals, radionuclides, mycotoxins and pesticides are chemical contaminants that can enter to animal feed and they have some residues in milk. The most contentious residues that occur in milk are antimicrobial drugs. They have some hazards for humans who consume milk and dairy products. Government and producer must apply some methods and plans for prevention and control of chemical contaminants in milk and dairy products. Total quality management and the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) approach has an important role for preventing and controlling of chemical contaminants in milk and dairy products, especially antibiotics in raw milk shipped from the farm. This study would have a review of materials and sources of chemical contaminants, public health concerns and the methods of for controlling of these contaminants in milk and dairy products.


OCEAN ACIDIFICATION
Vachhani Bindiya & Nimavat Jahanvi

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
bindiyavachhani44@gmail.com, jahanvinimavat03224@gmail.com

The ocean absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and this is causing chemical change by making them more acidic. calculation based on measurements of the surface chemistry indicate that this uptake of carbon dioxide has led to a reduction of 0.1 units, equivalent to a 30% increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions. From the evidence available it is not certain whether marine species, communities and ecosystem will be able to acclimate or evolve in response to change in ocean chemistry or whether ultimately the services that the ocean's ecosystem provide will be affected. Ocean play a very important role in the global carbon cycle and earth's climate system. There are potentially important interactions and feedback between changes in the state of the oceans (Including their pH) and changes in the global climate and atmospheric chemistry. Changes in the chemistry of the oceans will reduce their ability to absorb additional carbon dioxide from the atmosphere which in turn affect the rate and scale of global warming. Damage to coral reef ecosystem and the fisheries and recreation industries that depend on them could amount to economic losses of many billions of dollars per year. There may also be direct and indirect effects on commercially important fish and shellfish spices. If the risk of irreversible damage arising from ocean acidification is to be avoided particularly to the southern ocean, the cumulative future human derived emission of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere must be considerably less than 900 Gt C ( gigatonnes of carbon) by 2100.


NANO DRUGS: NANO GOLD IN TREATMENT OF CANCER
Dadhaniya Harsh P. & Patel Akshil D.

Department of Chemistry, Nathubhai V. Patel college of Applied Sciences, Vallabh Vidhyanagar
dadhaniya.harsh@gmail.com, akshil.patel94@gmail.com

It has been almost 4 decades since the "war on cancer" was declared. It is now generally believed that personalized medicine is the future for cancer patient management. Possessing unprecedented potential for early detection, accurate diagnosis, and personalized treatment of cancer, nanoparticles have been extensively studied over the last decade. In this review, we will summarize the current state - of - the - art of gold nanoparticles in biomedical applications targeting cancer. Working and characteristics of gold nano particles. Then we will further also add gold Nano drug - mediated thermal therapies. Big strides have been made and many proof - of - principle studies have been successfully performed. The future looks brighter than ever yet many hurdles remain to be conquered. A multifunctional platform based on gold nanoparticles, with multiple receptor targeting, multimodality imaging, and multiple therapeutic entities, holds the promise for a "Magic gold bullet" against cancer.


CHEMICAL WEAPONS
Dobariya Manali & Paghdar Nirali
Brahmanand College of Science - Chaparda

deepdobariya813@gmail.com, niralipaghdar2000@gmail.com

The repeated use of prohibited chemical weapons in the syrian conflict posses serious health, humanitarian, and security threats to civilians, healthcare personnel and first responders. Moreover, the use of chemical weapons constitutes a clear and egregious violation of international law - likely amounting to a war crime - for which constinued impunity is setting a dangerous precedent in relation to curret and future conflicts. This debate article Calls upon concerned. States, organization and humanitarian norms. Based on health,humanitarian and legal findings, this article calls for concrete action to (1) Reduse the risk of chemical weapons being used in current and future conflicts (2) Review and support the preparedness equipment and antidatesupplies of first responders, humanitarian organizations and military forces operating in syria. (3) Support international mechanisms for monitering and enforcing the prohibition on chemical weapons including through civilian vicitims of chemical accountability. (4) Support civilian victims of chemical weapons in campliance with the chemicalweapons. Convention a comprehensive treaty that bans chemical weapons and requires their complete destruction. All involved states and organizations should take urgent steps to ensure the protection of the most vulnerable victims of chemical weapons attacks in syria, and to reinforce international law in the face of such serious violations.


CRYSTALLINE METAL - ORGANIC FRAMEWORKS
Ravalia Birju V., Chavda Vivek H.

M.D Science College Porbandar Pin: 360575

Metal organic frameworks are a class of hybrid network supramolecular solid materials comprised of organized organic linkers and metal cation. They can display enormously high surface area with tunable pore size and functionality and can be used as hosts for a range of guest molecules. Since their discovery, Metal organic frameworks have experienced widespread exploration for their applications in gas storage, drug delivery, and sensing. Some possible applications of MOFs is separation of gas, in gas purification, in catalysis.


BIOFUELS
Keval dhandhukiya P. & Gajera Krunal L.

Department of Chemistry, Natubhai V. Patel College of pure and applied sciences, vallabhvidyanagar
dhandhukiyakeval1998@gmail.com&krunalgajera63@gmail.com

Global energy demand is increasing by around 60% by 2030, according to this international energy agency, if we do not act. We are currently dependent on external sources for 50 % of our energy needs, this could rise to 70 % by 2030.At the same time, and our climate is changing. Temperature is rising day by day. Now energy emissions represent three quarters of greenhouse gas emissions where bio fuels comes in. A bio fuels is a fuel that is produced through biological process. It comes from a variety of sources and in many different forms like corn, cooking oil (used), manure etc. Biofuels are classified as primary and secondary. Primary fuels include firewood, landfill gas; etc Secondary involves 1st generation, 2nd generation and 3rd generation. Bio fuels have the potential to offer important benefits to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emission in transport. This is important, because the transport sector is already responsible for most CO2emissions and is still increasing biofuels are developed which protect our planet and not create new risks. It can be derived directly from plants or indirectly from agricultural/industrial wastes. These are helpful in production of biofuels and in turn maintain stability in our planet.


BIOPLASTIC
Senjaliya Mahesh S. & Patel Karan P.

Department of Chemistry, Nathubhai V. Patel College of Applied Sciences, VallabhVidhyanagar
Mahesh.senjaliya84@gmail.com &karanpatel2204@gmail.com

One environmentally friendly alternative to the current commercial plastic is Bio plastics. Bio plastics are biodegradable plastics that have components derived directly from renewable raw plant materials. Their polymers are made from plant materials and they decay into natural materials that blend harmlessly with soil. In this project, Corn starch, Agar and Gelatine were used as biopolymers and Glycerol and Sorbitol as plasticizers. Seven types of Bio plastics were made using various combinations of these raw materials and plasticizers. Then their tensile strengths, biodegradability, thermal properties, and water degradation properties were compared. Their tensile strength testing and thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetric/ Thermo gravimetric analysis) were performed in the polymer synthesis lab at UALR using their testing apparatus's. For Tensile Strength, the average maximum load, load at break, stress, strain and time to break were calculated for each Bio plastic sample and various other commercial plastics using the three strips. For the thermal analysis, the samples TGA and DSC were measured. To test the biodegradability, compost was prepared using soil, green scraps, wood chippings, dry leaves, and newspaper. Then each of the samples was buried in separate compost bins for four weeks. After four weeks, the samples were taken out, dried, and measured for their final weight. The results suggest that Corn Starch Bio plastic has most tensile strength with considerable biodegradation and minimal water degradation. They also suggest that the gelatine + glycerol sample was the most thermally stable.


A NEW WAY OF HARNESS WASTED METHANE
Jimmy Nayaneshkumar Bhatt & Param Jagdishbhai Pandya.

B.N. Patel Institute of Peramedical & Science College, Anand.
jimmybhatt21@gmail.com, pandyaparam09@gmail.com

Methane is a hydrocarbon that is a primary component of natural gas, so it's present in an atmosphere affects the earth temperature and climate system. Methane is a emitted from a variety of anthropogent (human - influenced) and natural sources. Methane is emitted during the production and transport of coal, natural gas and oil. Methane emission also result from livestock and other agricultural practices. And by the decay of organic waste in municipal waste landfills. Natural gas Methane is important for electricity generation by burning. It as a fuel in a gas turbine or steam generator compared to other hydrocarbons fuels, methane produces a less carbon dioxide for each unit of heat released in heavy cities. Methane is piped into homes for domestic heating and cooking. Burning methane releases only carbon dioxide. Since natural gases is mostly methane. The combustion natural gas releases fewer by products than other fossil fuels. Because, this is a chemical reaction. It is also possible to quantity of water produced when Methane is burned. In the equation below Methane is being burned. The oxygen will be combine with the carbon and hydrogen in the Methane molecule to produced carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). A new study by researchers in Sweden has found that Christmas trees adsorb methane. The second most important greenhouse gas, next to carbon dioxide methane is 23 times more potent then carbon dioxide. And is more efficient in trapping radiation than CO2. But, methane life spam in the atmosphere shorter than CO2.


A GREEN APPROACH TO MAKING AMMONIA
Raj roshaniben jayantibhai & Padhiyar roshniben mahendrakumar

B. N. Patel Paramedical & Science College, Anand, Gujrat
rajroshani757@gmail.com, rpadhiyar112@gmail.com

The new approach can facilitate ammonia production using renewable energy such as electricity generated from solar or wind.Evolution of Carbon dioxide gas & oxygen gas.This advantage a sustainable development of our human society


HYDROGEN FUEL
Dabhi Sagar M. & Baria Vandana B.

B.N.Patel institute of paramedical and science collage
sagar.dabhi26899@gmail.com, vandanabbaria1998@gmail.com

Photocatalytic hydrogen evolution is a promising technique for the direct conversion of solar energy into chemical fuels. Colloidal quantum dots with tunable band gap and versatile surface properties remain among the most prominent targets in photocatalysis despite their frequent toxicity, which is detrimental for environmentally friendly technological implementations. In the present work, all - inorganic sulfide - capped InP and InP/ZnS quantum dots are introduced as competitive and far less toxic alternatives for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution in aqueous solution, reaching turnover numbers up to 128,000 based on quantum dots with a maximum internal quantum yield of 31%. In addition to the favorable band gap of InP quantum dots, in - depth studies show that the high efficiency also arises from successful ligand engineering with sulfide ions. Due to their small size and outstanding holecapture properties, sulfide ions effectively extract holes from quantum dots for exciton separation and decrease the physical and electrical barriers for charge transfer.Hydrogen fuel is a zero - emission fuel when burned with oxygen. It can be used in electrochemical cells or internal combustion engines to power vehicles or electric devices. It has begun to be used in commercial fuel cell vehicles such as passenger cars, and has been used in fuel cell buses for many years. It is also used as a fuel for the propulsion of space craft. Hydrogen fuel can provide motive power for liquid - propellant rockets, cars, boats and airplanes, portable fuel cell applications or stationary fuel cell applications, which can power an electric motor.


PAYPAL PAYMENT GATEWAY
Dedaniya Shraddha A.

Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
shraddhadedaniya10@gmail.com

PayPal Holdings, Inc. is an American company operating a worldwide online payments system that supports online money transfersand serves as an electronic alternative to traditional paper methods like cheques and money orders. The company operates as a payment processor for online vendors, auction sites, and many other commercial users, for which it charges a fee in exchange for benefits such as one - click transactions and password memory. PayPal's payment system, also called PayPal, is considered a type of payment rail.Getting paid online can be a little tricky, especially for new merchants. PayPal not only allows you to take money for other PayPal accounts, it also offers your customers the option to pay via credit card. Users can send money using your email address or you can use PayPal's e - commerce features to add buttons and shopping carts to your website PayPal Sandbox is a self - contained, virtual testing environment that mimics the live PayPal production environment. It provides a shielded space where you can initiate and watch your application process the requests you make to the PayPal APIs without touching any live PayPal accounts.


PROGRAMING LANGUAGE RUBY
Kathiriya Meet R.

Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T, Junagadh
kathiriyameet1996@gmail.com

Ruby is a dynamic, interpreted, reflective, object - oriented, general - purpose Programming language. It was designed and developed in the mid - 1990s by Yukihiro "Matz" Matsumoto in Japan. According to the creator, Ruby was influenced by Perl, Smalltalk, Eiffel, Ada, and Lisp.Ruby is an open - source and is freely available on the Web, but it is subject to a license & scripting with object - oriented programming.You can build virtually anything related to computer software with Ruby like Web Applications, APIs (Ruby on Rails, Sinatra), Mobile/Desktop Applications (RubyMotion), Command line tools (Thor), Embedded applications (mruby), Java applications (JRuby), Client - side Applications (Opal, as an alternative to JavaScript), Test suites for non - Ruby applications (Cucumber), Desktop and mobile games (Gosu, motion - game). Ruby on Rails, sometimes known as "RoR" or just "Rails," is an open source framework for Web development in Ruby, an object - oriented programming (OOP) language similar to Perl and Python.The Rails framework helps developers to build websites and applications, because it abstracts and simplifies common repetitive tasks. Rails is written in Ruby, the programming language which is also used alongside Rails.


CREDIT CARD OR DEBIT CARD
Ladani Bansari G. & Shobhashana Khyati M.

Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
ladanibansi555@gmail.com, Khyatishobhashana@gmail.com

We analyze the effects of credit and debit cards on the currency in circulation by using GMM estimation. Instead of using the data obtained by surveys, we use monthly data obtained by an interbank institution that keeps the statistics of all credit and debit cards usage of a small open economy, Turkey, for the period over 2002M1 - 2006M10. As expected from the theory, we find that an increase in the usage of credit and debit cards leads to a decrease in the currency demand. This study explored the adoption of the Europay, Mastercard, and Visa (EMV) standard for authenticating debit and credit card transactions among corporations in the United States, in response to high profile cybercrimes. Target Corporation was the victim of cybercrime through a chain of events, several U.S. organizations have suffered severe financial losses due to data breaches, and U.S. technology is vulnerable regarding debit and credit card transaction processing. Further, U.S. organizations other than financial institutions do not typically bear the financial burden for fraudulent transactions, and hesitate to invest in costly new security measures, such as machines that accommodate EMV chip cards, which are debit and credit cards with embedded microchips for added security.


INTERNET OF THINGS
Baldaniya Radhika A. & Amlani Falguni C.

Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
E - mail:radhuahir22097@gmail.com, amlanifalguni@gmail.com

The Internet of things (IOT) is the network of physical devices, vehicles, home appliances and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity which enable these objects to connect and exchange data. Each thing is uniquely identifiable through its embedded computing system but is able to inter - operate within the existing Internet infrastructure. Expert's estimate that the IOT will consist of about 30 billion objects by 2020. When IOT is augmented with sensors and actuators, the technology becomes an instance of the more general class of cyber - physical systems, which also encompasses technologies such as smart grids, virtual power plants, smart homes, intelligent transportation and smart cities. "Things", in the IOT sense, can refer to a wide variety of devices such as heart monitoring implants, biochip transponders on farm animals, cameras streaming live feeds of wild animals in coastal waters, automobiles with built - in sensors, DNA analysis devices for environmental/food/pathogen monitoring, or field operation devices that assist fire - fighters in search and rescue operations. Legal scholars suggest regarding "things" as an "inextricable mixture of hardware, software, data and service".


HOLOGRAPHIC MEMORY
Chapla Gopi K.

Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
chaplagopi123@gmail.com

Using holograms as memory storage was first proposed by Pieter Heerden in the 1960s. During the early 1970s, a group of scientists from TRCA laboratories succeeded in storing 500 holograms using an iron doped litium niobate crystal. Moreover, they were also able to store 550 high - resolution hologram images using a material made up of light sensitive polymer. The high cost of the materials needed for this type of technology as well as the rise of magnetic and optical drives shelved the project in the end.Holographic memory is a technique that can store information at high density inside crystals Holographic memory is developing technology that has promised to revolutionalise the storage systems. It can store data up to 1Tb in a sugar cube sized crystal. Data from more than 1000 CDs can fit into a holographic memory System. Holographic storage has the potential to become the next generation of storage media Conventional memories use only the surface to store the data Holographic memory is a storage device that is being researched and slated as the storage device that will replace traditional storage media. The holographic memory system is made up of the components:a charge - coupled device, lenses to focus the laser beams, an LCD panel, a photopolymer or lithium niobate crystal, mirrors to direct the laser light, beam splittersand an argon laser.


G.R.U.H. (INTERNET OF THINGS)
Gohel Hardik M.

Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
hardikmgohel007@gmail.com

"G.R.U.H." herestands "General Reconstructed Urban Home.Concept of "G.R.U.H". or "Internet of Things" conceptualizes the idea of remotely connecting and monitoring real world objects through the Internet.When it comes to our house, this concept can be incorporated to make it smarter, safer and automated. It also focuses on building a smart wireless home security system which sends alerts to the owner by using Internet in case of any trespass and raises an alarm optionally.Besides, the same can also be utilized for home automation by making use of the same set of sensors. The leverage obtained by preferring this system over the similar kinds of existing systems is that the alerts and the status sent by the Wi - Fi connected system can be received by the user on his phone from any distance irrespective of whether his mobile phone is connected to the internet or not. It can also be used for automation purpose. Automation control in home or office can also be done by having help of 3rd party providers like Google's Home, Amazon's Alexa, Apple's Home - Kit, Microsoft's Echo etc. This can be used for open parking garage, unlock front door, turning on/off the lights, turning heating/air conditioning gadgets etc.


EYE GAZE TECHNOLOGY
Kantesariya Jeenal N. & Vadodaria Manali N.

Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
vadodariamanali12@gmail.com, Jeenalpatel4100@gmail.com

The objective of the Eye gaze project is to use Eye gaze of the human by the means of interaction with the computer. As such, we have to develop a commercial computer system such that users will be able to operate computer based system by giving commands making use of his eye only.For instance to perform particular function such as to switch ON/OFF lights, the user activate control key on thescreen in front of the function only by looking towards that key. The Eyegaze System is a communication and control system for people with complex physical disabilities. You run the system with your eyes. By looking at control keys displayed on a screen, a person can synthesize speech, control his environment, type, operate a telephone, run computer software, operate a computer mouse, and access the Internet and e - mail. Eyegaze Systems are being used to write books, attend school and enhance the quality of life of people with disabilities all over the world. The advantage of this system that there is no need of any physical connection between user and the system.This system is being developed for the people with the complex physical disabilities. This type of direct eye interface would increase an individual independence, dramatically improved quality of life of such people. It was first time introduced by Yarbus and known as Yarbuseye tracker in the 1960.


WIRELESS COMPUTING
Sevara Sapana H. & Kathiriya Riddhi V.

Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
sapnasevra@gmail.com, reedhikathiriya@gmail.com

Today's fast growing world needs faster communication. Technology is making rapid progress and is making many things easier. "MOBILE COMPUTING" and COMMUNICATIONS is a major part of wireless communication technology. Mobile computing in means computing done by intermittently connected users who access network resources. It requires a wireless medium such as cellular radio, radio nets and low - orbit satellites. It incorporates wireless adapters using cellular telephone technology to connect portable computers with the cabled network. Mobile voice communication is widely established throughout the world and had a very rapid increase in the number of subscribers to the various cellular networks over the last few years. An extension of this technology is the ability to send and receive data across these cellular networks. Mobile data communication has become a very important and rapidly evolving technology as it allows users to transmit data from remote locations to other remote or fixed locations. This proves to be the solution to the biggest problem of business people on the move - mobility. Mobile Computing evolved during the last few years as a result of shrinking portables and growing wireless networks. It enlarges the usability of computers, but raises demanding challenges.


6G TECHNOLOGY
Ladva Yagnik K. & Dedakiya Jeet J.

Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
ladvayagnik@gmail.com, Jeetpatel5203@gmail.com

6g technology refers to the sixth generation technology. It is proposed to integrate 5G technology for a global coverage. For resource monitoring and weather information multimedia video and high - speed Internet connectivity and the Earth imaging satellite networks are used. To integrate these three kinds of satellite like telecommunication, navigation, multimedia networks which provide global positions, internet connectivity with high speed and for mobile user's weather information services are major three objectives for 6g technology.The 6G mobile technology is the next generation wireless mobile resources and the 6g technology will surely make a phenomenal changes in mobile technologies.The mobile world is racing very fast that the mobile manufacturers on one side make new mobile phones with latest technology which can be categorized into Camera Mobiles, Music Mobiles, Office Mobiles, Touch Mobiles, Mp3 mobiles, Card slot mobiles, FM mobiles, Bluetooth mobiles, GPS mobiles, Games mobiles, 3G mobiles, Wi - Fi mobiles, E - mail mobiles, Qwerty mobiles, Smartphones, Business Mobiles and others.On the contrary, mobile manufacturers have reduced the mobile prices drastically such that each and every single individual is owning a mobile and it also has become a necessity for better and good communication.


VIRTUAL CLASS
Padalia Shivani Vijaybhai

Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
padaliashivani20@gmail.com

A virtual classroom is an online classroom that allows participants to communicate with one another, view presentations or videos, interact with other and engage with resources in work groups. A virtual classroom is a teaching and learning environment where participants can interact, communicate, view and discuss presentations, and engage with learning resources while working in groups, all in an online setting. The medium is often through a video conferencing application that allows multiple users to be connected at the same time through the Internet, which allows users from virtually anywhere to participate.A virtual classroom is also known as a virtual learning environment (VLE). There is no concrete definition of what a virtual classroom is, but the most logical one is simply that it is an online classroom environment facilitated via specialized video conferencing applications. The participants, of course, include one or multiple instructors and students. However, a classroom or class does not always need an active instructor to supervise students; in this setting, they can proceed at their own pace, with the instructor only around to evaluate the students; sometimes there is no instructor at all. This type of virtual classroom is called an unsupervised virtual classroom, which is characterized by ready - made learning materials that students can follow without the aid of an instructor, essentially a self - paced tutorial course where the exams can be automated after every activity.


DATA SCIENCE FOR R
Renpara Kartikkumar V. & Parmar Pankaj B.

Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
kartikrenpara2000@gmail.com, Parmar0402013@gmail.com

The R Foundation describes R as "a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics." Created by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman at the University of Auckland in New Zealand in the 1990s as a statistical platform for their students, open - source R has been extended over the decades by thousands of user - created libraries. R is data analysis software: Data scientists, statisticians, and analysts—anyone who needs to make sense of data, really—can use R for statistical analysis, data visualization, and predictive modelling. R is a programming language: An object - oriented language created by statisticians, R provides objects, operators, and functions that allow users to explore, model, and visualize data. R is an environment for statistical analysis: Standard statistical methods are easy to implement in R, and since much of the cutting - edge research in statistics and predictive modeling is done in R, newly developed techniques are often available in R first. R is an open - source software project: R's open interfaces allow it to integrate with other applications and systems. R is a community: The R project leadership has grown to include more than 20 leading statisticians and computer scientists from around the world, and thousands of contributors have created add - on packages. With two million users, R boasts a vibrant online community.


DIGITAL LOCKER
Dhorajiya Yaxita Hiteshbhai & Kamani Karishma Dilipbhai

Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
karishmakamani12@gmail.com, yaxitadhorajiya@gmail.com

Digital Locker is one of the ambitious aspects of Digital India Programme. This document offers a standardized mechanism to issue government documents to Aadhaar holders in electronic and printable formats, store them, and make it shareable with various agencies. This allows government issued documents to be moved to electronic form and make it available for real - time access in a set of "digital repositories". This solution also offers multiple digital locker providers and access gateway to co - exist to enable healthy eco system play. Usage of Aadhaar ensures that document owner is strongly authenticable eliminating document frauds. In addition to supporting new documents to be made electronic and online accessible. Proposal also offers a mechanism by which "digital lockers" can be offered by service providers and suggestion to provide "a defaultdigitallocker" portal and mobile application to residents to view a consolidated list of documents using their Aadhaar number. NINE PILLARS OF DIGITAL INDIA: 1. Broadband Highways. 2. Universal Access to Phones. 3. Public Internet Access Programme. 4. E - Governance -Reforming government through Technology 5. eKranti - Electronic delivery of services 6. Information for all 7. Electronics Manufacturing - Target NET ZERO Imports 8. IT for Jobs 9. Early Harvest Programmes.


5G TECHNOLOGY
Dara Sagar S. & Jayesh Prajapati R.

Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh < br /> sagardara4@gmail.com, Jayesh6342@gmail.com

5G ( 5th generation mobile networks or 5th generation wireless systems ) is a name used in some research papers and projects to denote the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the upcoming 4G standards (expected to be finalized between approximately 2011 and 2013). Currently, 5G is not a term officially used for any particular specification or in any official document yet made public by telecommunication companies or standardization bodies such as 3GPP, WiMAX Forum or ITU - R. New 3GPP standard releases beyond 4G and LTE Advanced are in progress, but not considered as new mobile generations. The implementation of standards under a 5G umbrella would likely be around the year of 2020. 5G Technology stands for 5th Generation Mobile technology. 5G technology has changed the means to use cell phones within very high bandwidth. User never experienced ever before such a high value technology. Nowadays mobile users have much awareness of the cell phone (mobile) technology. The 5G technologies include all type of advanced features which makes 5G technology most powerful and in huge demand in near future.


TYPES OF NETWORKING
Jora Bhargavi K.

Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
bhargavijora1803@gmail.com

Computer networks are a system of interconnected computers for the purpose of sharing digital information. The concept of a network began in 1962 when a server at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology was connected to a server in Santa Monica, California. Since that time the proliferation of computers and computer networks has increased significantly. One of the most significant challenges to networks is attacks on their resources caused by inadequate network security. Local Area Networks, or LANs, are the "physical" networks that provide the connection between machines within, say, a home, school or corporation. LANs are, as the name says, "local"; it is the IP, or Internet Protocol, layer that provides an abstraction for connecting multiple LANs into, well, the Internet. Finally TCP deals with transport and connections and actually sending user data.


5 PEN PC TECHNOLOGY
Karia Heer V. & Satvara Astha A

Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
heerkaria58@gmail.com, astha2000.vg@gmail.com

The conceptual prototype of the "pen" computer was built in 2003. The prototype device, dubbed the "P - ISM", was a "Pen - style Personal Networking Gadget" created in 2003 by Japanese technology company NEC. The P - ISM was featured at the 2003 ITU Telecom World held in Geneva, Switzerland. Five pen pc shortly called as P - ISM?Pen - style Personal Networking Gadget Package?), is nothing but the new discovery, which is under developing stage by NEC Corporation. P - ISM is a gadget package including five functions: a CPU pen, communication pen with a cellular phone function, virtual keyboard, a very small projector, and a camera. P - ISM's are connected with one another through short - range wireless technology. The whole set is also connected to the Internet through the cellular phone function. This personal gadget in a minimalist pen style enables the ultimate ubiquitous computing. Components of 5 pen pc technology: CPU Pen, Communication Pens, LED Projector, Digital Camera, and Virtual Keyboard. 5 pen pc technologies is a gadget package including five functions: 1) A pen style cellular phone with a handwriting input function, 2) Virtual keyboard, 3) A very small projector, 4) Camera scanner, 5) Personal id key with cashless pass function.


CLOUD COMPUTING
Mehta Yesha B.

Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
yeshucuty29@gmail.com

Cloud computing is a general term for the delivery of hosted services over the internet.cloud computing is the delivery of computing services - servers, storage, databases, networking, software, analytics, intelligence and more - over the Internet ("the cloud") to offer faster innovation, flexible resources and economies of scale. cloud computing enables companies to consume a compute resource such as a virtual machine (VM), storage, application. There are three types of cloud computing: public - Public clouds are owned and operated by a third - party cloud service provider, which deliver their computing resources like servers and storage over the Internet. E.g. Microsoft Azure), private - (A private cloud refers to cloud computing resources used exclusively by a single business or organisation.), hybrid (Hybrid clouds combine public and private clouds, bound together by technology that allows data and applications to be shared between them.) and Types of cloud services: Infrastructure as a service (IaaS - The most basic category of cloud computing services.), Platform as a service (PaaS - Platform as a service refers to cloud computing services that supply an on - demand environment for developing, testing, delivering and managing software applications), and Software as a service (SaaS - Software as a service is a method for delivering software applications over the Internet).


SNIFFER FOR MOBILE PHONES
Vaghamshi Yugant H.

Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh

The main scope of this paper is to detect the lost mobiles. Each and every day thousands of mobiles get misplaced or lost, though effective way for the blocking of the lost mobile to prevent unauthorized person from making and receiving the calls has been done by the manufacturers of the mobile with the help of International Mobile Equipment Identifier (IMEI) has been done but however there has been no development or very little progress for the detection of the misplaced mobile phone. For the detection of lost mobile SNIFFER plays a vital role .The sniffer device has to be designed precisely and size should be reduced for easy mobility for the purpose of detection .The device can be called as a mobile Base station that includes Sniffer Base station, unidirectional antenna, tracking software. The sniffer is a small base station that includes transceiver section. It should operate at a frequency which is much different from the frequency of the current cell in which the operation of detection is being carried out. The directional antenna is an important device that is to be designed and used as it plays a major role.


E - BALL TECHNOLOGY
Ahir Yogita S.

Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
Yogitasbahir9@gmail.com

A new concept of pc is coming now that is E - Ball Concept pc. The E - Ball concept pc is a sphere shaped computer which is the smallest design among all the laptops and desktops. This computer has all the feature like a traditional computer, elements like keyboard or mouse, DVD, large screen display. E Ball is designed that pc is be placed on two stands, opens by pressing and holding the two buttons located on each side of the E - Ball pc, this pc is the latest concept technology. The E - Ball is a sphere shaped computer concept which is the smallest design among all the laptops and desktops have ever made. This PC concept features all the traditional elements like mouse, keyboard, large screen display, DVD recorder, etc., all in an innovative manner. E - Ball is designed to be placed on two stands, opens by simultaneously pressing and holding the two buttons located on each side. After opening the stand and turning ON the PC, pressing the detaching mouse button will allow you to detach the optical mouse from the PC body. This concept features a laser keyboard that can be activated by pressing the particular button. E - Ball is very small, it is having only 6 inch diameter sphere. It is having 120×120mm motherboard.


VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK
Lila Bhumi Sanjaybhai & Mavani Dikshita Bipinbhai

Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
bca17bhumilila@gmail.com & bca17dixitamavani@gmail.com

A Virtual Private Network [VPN] extends a private network across a public network, such as the Internet. It is a big challenge to protect VPNs from remote exploits that take the advantage of a bug. Although firewalls, Intrusion Detection System (IDS), and IPsec can prevent unauthorized acces. This protects the data from begin seen or tampered with by bad actors.The two most common use cases are consumer VPN service that allow individuals to surf privately from home or a public setting and business oriented solution that allow employees to securely connect to a corporate network remotely. There are two types of VPN (1) Router - to - Router (2) site - to - site. The alternative to using VPN technology is the Hige - speed leased line.


GOOGLE GLASS
Jayesh C. Vakatar

Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
Jayeshvakatar0@gmail.com

Google Glass is a brand of - a designed in the shape of a pair of eyeglasses. It was developed by X (previously Google X) with the mission of producing a Google Glass displayed information in a - like, hands - free format. Wearers communicated with the Internet via voice commands.Google started selling a of Google Glass to qualified "Glass Explorers" in the US on April 15, 2013, for a limited period for $1,500, before it became available to the public on May 15, 2014 It had an integral 5still/ video camera. The headset received a great deal of criticism and legislative action due to privacy and safety concerns.On January 15, 2015, Google announced that it would stop producing the Google Glass prototype, to be continued in 2017 tentatively.


BRAIN FINGERPRINTING
Seema Vagadiya

Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
It17.vsd@gmail.com

Brain finger printing is based on finding that the brain generates a unique brain wave pattern when a person encounters a familiar stimulus. Use of functional magnetic resonance imaging in lie detection derives from studies suggesting that persons asked to lie show different patterns of brain activity than they do when being truthful. Issues related to the use of such evidence in courts are discussed. In the field of criminology, a new lie detector has been developed in the United States of America called "brain finger printing". This invention is supposed to be the best lie detector available as on date and is said to detect even smooth criminals who pass the polygraph test with ease. The new method employs brain waves, which are useful in detecting whether the person subjected to the test, remembers finer details of the crime. Even if the person willingly suppresses the necessary information, the brain wave is sure to trap him, according to the experts. The basic idea is that the brain emits a unique brainwave pattern when confronted with a particular stimulus. This brainwave pattern is then studied with a well - devised algorithm and the necessary deductions are carried out to avoid any error. Brain Fingerprinting simply determines if the information is "present" or "absent" and delivers a confidence based on computed statistics for each determination. Apart from criminology, this technique is useful in other applications too.


BLUE BRAIN
Sorathiya Zakiyabanu A.

Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
zakiyasorathiya7@gmail.com

Human brain the most valuable creation of god .man is called intelligent because of brain. "BLUE BRAIN" - the name of world's first virtual brain that means a machin that can function as human brain .it is really possible to creat a human brain.What is blue brain: the IBM is noe developing a virtual brain known as the BLUE BRAIN .it whoul be the worlds fist virtual brain .within 30 years, we will be able to scan overselves into the computer.what is virtual brain: 1] a machin that can function as brain.2] It can take decision. 3] It can think. 4] It can respond. 5] It can keep things in memory.why we need virtual brain: to upload content of the natural brain into it.to keep the intelligence .knowledge and skill of any person for ever.to remember things without any efforts. Fuctioning of blue brain: sensory input, interpretation, motor output. Now there is no questions how the virtual brain will work.but the question is how the human brain will be uploaded into it.this is also possible due to the fast growing technology.


MACHINE LEARNING
Gojiya Anjana H.

Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Science & I.T., Junagadh
it17.gah@gmail.com

Machine learning is an application that provides systems the ability to automatically learn and improve from experience without being explicitly programmed. Machine learning focuses on the development of computer programs that can access data and use it learn for themselves. The process of learning begins with observations or data, such as examples, direct experience, or instruction, in order to look for patterns in data and make better decisions in the future based on the examples that we provide. The primary aim is to allow the computers learn automatically without human intervention or assistance and adjust actions accordingly. Supervised machine learning algorithms can apply what has been learned in the past to new data using labeled examples to predict future events. Starting from the analysis of a known training dataset, the learning algorithm produces an inferred function to make predictions about the output values. Unsupervised machine learning algorithms are used when the information used to train is neither classified nor labeled. Reinforcement machine learning algorithms is a learning method that interacts with its environment by producing actions and discovers errors or rewards.


DIGITAL MARKETING
Shivam H Pandya & Priti T Gamit

B. N. Patel Institute of Paramedical and Science (Science Division), Anand, Gujarat - 388001
shivam89pandya9@gmail.com, pritigamit106@gmail.com

A website plays a vital role while performing digital marketing. You can say website is a soul of digital marketing, as digital marketing cannot be performed without having a website. Website is something which reflects your company in just a small computer, tablet or mobile screen. Social Media seems to be a new trend, but its roots stretch to the beginning of computer era. You need to engage with social media to manage your online reputation. Social media marketing is a must to target a wider customer base and expand your business. Social Media Marketing is the activity of driving website traffic through social media sites. Email marketing is one segment of a company's overall digital marketing strategy. Email marketing is the use of email to promote products or services and to develop a relationship with a database of existing and potential customers that helps us achieve our marketing goals. Web Analytics is the methodological study of online/offline patterns and trends. It is a technique that you can employ to collect, measure, report, and analyze your website data. It is normally carried out to analyze the performance of a website and optimize its web usage.


SEO {SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMIZATION}
Urmil R Chheda

B. N. Patel Institute of Paramedical and Science (Science Division), Anand, Gujarat - 388001
urmilchheda1999@gmail.com

Search engine optimization (SEO for short) is simply the process of obtaining website visitors (or traffic) from "free" or "organic" search results in search engines like Google or Bing. All major search engines have primary search results that are ranked based on what the search engine considers most relevant to users. We call these organic results, because they are free and not driven by paid advertisements. Search engine optimization helps maximize the number of visitors to a particular website or page by ensuring that the site appears high on the list of organic results returned by a given search engine. Relevancy is determined by over 200 factors. It's impossible to discuss them all, partially because it would take too much time, but mostly because we don't know all of them. The keyword distribution on your page is also important. Google checks how often the search query can be found on your page. If it appears in your domain, url, title, header tags, content... the page will be considered more relevant. As an Internet marketing strategy, SEO considers how search engines work, the computer programmed algorithms which dictate search engine behavior, what people search for, the actual search terms or keywords typed into search engines, and which search engines are preferred by their targeted audience. Optimizing a website may involve editing its content, adding content, doing HTML, and associated coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines. Promoting a site to increase the number of backlinks or inbound links, is another SEO tactic. By May 2015, mobile search had surpassed desktop search. In 2015, it was reported that Google is developing and promoting mobile search as a key feature within future products. In response, many brands are beginning to take a different approach to their Internet marketing strategies


ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Surani Vikas, Akash Sejpal

vikassurani11@gmail.com & akashsejpal69@gmail.com

Since 1956 was the first Artificial Intelligence Conference which is handled by stanford University researcher "JOHN MACCARTY" and clear world artificial intelligence. 1969 was the first General Purpose mobile robot built name was "SHAKEY". In 1997 super computer named "DEEP BLUE" was designed which defeated world chess champion. This was the first time set a milestone by IBM Company. In 2002 First Robotic Vacuum Cleaner. In 2005 - 2018 There are some gadgets like speech Recognition, dancing robots, smart robots, smarts home etc. Introduction: - Artificial intelligence is a form of computer science used to create intelligent machines that can recognize human speech, objects, can learn, plan and solve problems like human. Features: - It can learn speech recognition. Object detection, solve problems and from the given data. Plan an approach for future tasks to be done. Example of AI: - Automation, Machine learning, Natural language processing, robotics, Self driving cars. Types of Ai: - Purely reactive, Limited memory, Theory of mind, Self aware. Application of Artifical Intelligence: - Bank - fraud detection, Online customer support, Cyber security, Virtual assistance, Google assistant, Cortana, Alexa, Siri, Ai in healthcare, Ai in business, Ai in finance, Ai in law. Security and ethical concern: - The application of AI in the realm of self - driving cars raises security as well as ethical concerns. Autonomous vehicles may also be put in a position where an accident is unavoidable, forcing the programming to make an ethical decision about how to minimize damage.


AUGMENTED REALITY
Meet Pritmani & Ridham Vasoya

SSSDIIT - JUNAGADH
meetpritmani56131@gmail.com & ridhamvasoya4243@gmail.com

What is Augmented Reality? Augmented reality (AR) is a field of computer research which deals with the combination of real - world and computer - generated data. With the help of AR technology, information about the surrounding real world of the user becomes interactive and digitally usable. In Augmented Reality, the user must still be aware that he or she is present in the "real world." History Of Augmented Reality: - Head Mounted Display (HMD) 1968 - Ivan Sutherland, Global Pointing System 1993 - Military, Wearable Wireless Webcam 1994 - Steve Mann. Touring Machine 1997 - Steve Feiner (Columbia University, New York.). Battlefield Augmented Reality System (BARS) 2000.What is needed? There are three components needed in order to make an augmented - reality system work: Head - mounted display, tracking system, Mobile computing power. Current Uses of AR: - HUD (Head Up Display): Used in commercial aircraft, automobiles, and other applications, Presents data without requiring the user to look away from his or her usual viewpoint. Display Technologies: - Monitor Based, Laptops, Cell phones, Projectors (more Ubiquitous Computing). The Three Tools of AR: - AR 3D viewers, AR browsers, Gaming. Games: - Pokémon GO(2016) by Niantic, Ingress(2012) by Niantic, Jurassic World Alive by Ludia, Zombies Run!(2012). Applications: - Snapchat(2012) by Snap Inc, B612(2014) by SNOW Inc.


DIGITAL TWIN
Solanki Mahesh & Babariya Kishan

SSSDIIT - JUNAGADH
mahoosolanki@gmail.com & kishankumar20931@gmail.com

Digital twins are virtual replicas of physical devices that data scientists and IT professionals can use to run simulations before actual devices are built and deployed. They are also changing how technologies such as IoT and AI and analytics are optimized. Digital twin technology has moved beyond manufacturing and into the merging worlds of the Internet of Things and artificial intelligence and data analytics. As more complex THINGS become connected with the ability to produce data, having a digital equivalent gives data scientists and other IT professionals the ability to optimize deployments for peak efficiency and create other what - if scenarios. The concept of the Digital Twin dates back to a University of Michiga presentation to industry in 2002 for the formation of a Product Lifecycle Management center. What is a digital twin? It"s a digital representation of a physical object or system. The technology behind digital twins has expanded to include larger items such as buildings, factories and even cities, and some have said people and processes can have digital twins, expanding the concept even further.Digital twins could be used in manufacturing, energy, transportation and construction. Large, complex items such as aircraft engines, trains, offshore platforms and turbines could be designed and tested digitally before being physically produced.