on Recent Inclinations in Antimicrobial resistance:
from ‘wonder drugs’ to post antibiotic era
“Alarm bells are ringing”

About College
Patron's Message
Principal & Director's Message
Aim of Symposium
Words of Thanks
Abstract Book Information
Invited Talks

Chemical Science & Pharmacy
Life Science, Agriculture Science Medical Science & Veterinary Science

National Level Symposium Abstract Book

Sponsored by:
Gujarat State Biotechnology Mission(GSBTM)
Department of Science & Technology
Government of Gujart, Gandhinagar

Association with:
Department of Chemistry & Forensic Science
Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University

Chief Editor & Publisher :
Dr. H. L. Kansagra
College of Computer, Science & Information Technology (CCSIT)
Green City, Bypass Road, Nr. Chobari Railway Crossing,
Junagadh - 362001. (Gujarat) Contact : 9228006940
Website :, E-mail :

Co Editor:
Head, Department of Life Science, CCSIT, Junagadh
Head, Department of Chemical Science, CCSIT, Junagadh
Head, Department of Computer Science, CCSIT, Junagadh

Third Edition: Jan - 2020
Pages : 54


Sr. No.

Invited Talks

1 One health approach for control and containment of Antimicrobial Resistance 1
2 Conceptions and prospects of in silico multi-target drug discovery (MTDD) for combating drug resistant microbes 2
3 Role of Diagnostics in Antimicrobial resistance2

Chemical Science & Pharmacy

Sr. No. Title of Oral / Poster Page No.
1 A clean, benign, energy efficient one-pot multicomponent synthesis and bio- evaluation of novel [1,2,4] triazolo [1,5-a] quinolines 3
2 A spontaneous, convenient synthesis and biological evaluation of Indole derivatives 3
3 Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal characteristic of ni(ii) metal based heterochelates 3
4 A recent advances in chalcone hybrid 3
5 Antidepression drug: paroxetine 4
6 Advancement and future directions towards herbal treatment for various diseases 4
7 Empagliflozin drug 4
8 Novel drug development & delivery system 5
9 Plant-derived svc112 hits cancer stem cells, leaves healthy cells alone 5
10 Anticancer drug –doxorubicin 5
11 Photoredox catalysis in organic chemistry 6
12 Nanoparticles: oral delivery for protein and peptide drugs 6
13 Significance of traditional indian medicine (for flower) 6
14 Design & synthesis of formic acid catalysed and cyclised novel modified route for n, 7-diphenyl-7h benzo[7,8] chromeno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-8-deriatives and study of their antimicrobial activity 6
15 Evaluation of antimicrobial & antileishmanial activity of some quinazolinone derivatives 7 16 Drug (pharmaceutical) in drinking water 7
17 Liquid crystal 7
18 Decolonisation and degradation of methyl orange by graphne oxide and manganese dioxide from aqueous solution 8
19 Use of cyclic aliphatic ketones for spiro 2-amino-3-cyano pyrano [3,2-c]chromene formation 8
20 Synthesis and biological activity of some various aldehyde and 1,2,3 -triazole containing heterocyclic compounds 8
21 Green solvent reaction and green chemistry 8
22 Penicillin 9
23 The hydrogen bomb 9
24 Drug – amitriptyline 9
25 Review on oxetane synthesis through paterno-buchi reaction 9
26 Teixobactin 10
27 Biological activities of pyridine derivatives- a review 10
28 Recent advances in super-cooling material 10
29 Review on anti tb potential of pyrazinamide derivatives 10
30 Antifungal activity of substituted 2-aryl benzimidazole 10
31 Novel bioactive molecules synthesis by domino knoevenagel hetero diels-alder reaction 11
32 Advances in cross coupling reaction in c-c,c-n,c-o,c-s by copper catalyst 11
33 Diamino diacid solid phase synthesis of peptide disulfide derivatives-a review 11
34 A review on synthesis of indole derivative by transition metal catalyst 11
35 Pyrimidine base derivatives as anticancer- a review 11
36 A review on versatile multi component one pot synthesis of thiazole 12
37 A novel isoqunoline derivative: as anti-cancer agent 12
38 A review on solvent free synthesis of metal complex 12
39 Rhodanine derivates: applicated as antibacterial activity 12
40 A review on pyrazole derivatives as antitubecular activity 12
41 A review on antimicrobial activity of the coumarin derivatives 13
42 A review on rh catalyst with various solvent 13
43 A review on ugi and palladium catalysed reaction 13
44 A review on multicomponent ugi-aza-wittig reaction 13
45 Smell of rain: what is in the smell of first rain? 14
46 Anti cancer drug:-keytruda (pembrolizumab) 14
47 Extraction of nicotine from tobacco 14
48 Chemical fertilizer vs organic fertilizer 15
49 Tetracycline as an antibiotic drugs 15
50 Cephalosporin as an antibiotic drug 15
51 Antibiotic drug: penicillin 15
52 Capturing air pollution and recycling to air ink 16
53 An antifungal drugs16
54 Iron Oxide Nanoparticles For Theraputic Application17
55 Oxidation By Alkaline KMNO417
56 New Chemical Weapons Combat Cancer17
57 Cocaine Drug17
58 Extraction Of Nicotine From Tobacco17
59 Recent Drug Discovery in Cancer17

Life Science, Agriculture Science Medical Science & Veterinary Science

Sr. No. Title of Oral / Poster Page No.
1 Antimicrobial peptides: Most well equipped soldiers in the war against antimicrobial resistance 17
2 Standardization of hybrid seed production techniques in Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) 17
3 “Effect of medicinal plant extraction on seed germination in wheat and groundnut.” 18
4 Antimicrobial peptides: Key player against multidrug resistant pathogens in post antibiotic era 18
5 Phage therapy – an alternative therapy to antibiotic 18
6 Multi-drug resistance in cancer: Mechanism and treatment 19
7 Molecular basis of klotho ; from gene to function in aging 19
8 Bineural beats 19
9 Herbal treatment of cancer 20
10 Development of anticancer drugs 20
11 Nitrogen fixing bio fertilizer used in agriculture 20
12 Molecular imagine in cancer treatment 21
13 Alternatives to conventional antibiotics in the era of antimicrobial resistance 21
14 Blood group system 21
15 Fermentation of food by lab 22
16 The microbiology of aquatic oil spill 22
17 Multi drug resistance in bacteria 22
18 Oil spills 23
19 Dark chocolate as a probiotic 23
20 Reverse vaccinology 23
21 Hydroponic farming technique 24
22 The high pathogenicity of Nipah virus from Pteropus lylei fruit bats, cambodia 24
23 When the drugs don’t work: antibiotic resistance as a global development problem 24
24 Biofuel: the future of energy 25
25 Human immuno deficiency virus 25
26 How lung cancer arises based on complexity theory 25
27 Morden drug discovery 26
28 Silver nanoparticles: synthesis and characterization 26
29 Total protein profile study on groundnut at various development stages using electrophoresis technique 26
30 Potentiality of pgpbs excerpted from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Rhizosphere from three different geographical location of saurashtra region 27
31 Validation of molecular markers linked with mungbean yellow mosaic virus (mymv) resistance in mungbean 27
32 “Response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) On n, p and k nano fertilizers” 27
33 Formulation of probiotic dark chocolate using two probiotic strains – isolated and characterised from different samples. 28
34 Limnology study of meghal river, simar, gir-somnath 28
35 “Agnihotra: homa organic farming” 29
36 Biodiesel from chicken feather meal 29
37 Different mechanisms of sex determination and molecular markers in dioecious crops 29
38 The future of microbial biofilm treatment in the post antibiotic era 30
39 “Sweet sorghum: a smart, multipurpose crop” 30
40 Biogenic synthesis of copper based nanoparticle and exploring their antimicrobial activities 30
41 Plant growth promoting activity inherited by groundnut seed endophytes 31
42 Mammalian autophagy 31
43 Smart cloth be used to help medical patient’s 31
44 Bacteriophage: A Therapy concept against multi drug – resistant bacteria 32
45 Global climate changes 32
46 Effect of musical vibrations on growth and pigment production of Brevibacterium spp. 32
47 Superbug: why we need action now? 33
48 Bacteria that produce pure gold 33
49 Production of bio fertilizers from agro-wastes 33
50 Different types of wastewater treatment by MFC 34
51 Artificial enzyme 34
52 Probiotic food 34
53 Antimicrobial resistance 35
54 Molecular docking 35
55 Nutrient recovery from bio-waste 35
56 Probiotic food 36
57 Water pollution 36
58 Autism spectrum disorders 36
59 Novel approach: plasmid and anti-plasmid curing as a strategy to deal with AMR 37
60 Alzheimer’s disease 37
61 Jatropha plant biofuel 37
62 Ozone depletion 38
63 Bacillus anthracis 38
64 Mechanisms of induction of skin cancer by uv radiation 38
65 Effect of penicillin in streptococcus pneumoniae 39
66 Acid rain 39
67 Dengue: causes, effects, & treatment 39
68 Bacterial cellulose 39
69 Cosmetic microbiology 40
70 Ebola virus threat as a bioterrorism 40
71 Hiv-1 vaccine 40
72 The tip of iceberg 41
73 Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) In the intensive care unit 41
74 Microbial concrete: self – healing concrete 41
75 Mycoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil: progress prospects and perspectives 42
76 Anti – microbial resistance 42
77 Prochlorocous: intrwined model for early evolution 42
78 World’s most usable renewable solar energy and its innovations 43
79 Biofuel 43
80 The natural wonder of bioluminescence 43
81 Storage of hydrogen as a fuel 44
82 Cancer: can stem cells heal cancer? 44
83 Cancer is a preventable disease via chemo preventive agents: literature review44
84 Pharmacovigilance and adrs (adverse drug reactions) 44
85 Nanorobotics45
86 Bhasma :"the ancient indian nanomedicine" 45
87 Transplantation in thalassemia 45
88 "Snack bite, anti-venom and treatment" 46
89 "Recent advancement in venom derived drugs" 46
90 Treatment of diabetes mellitus by stem cell therapy46
91 Banana pseudo-stem fiber: an eco-friendly alternate to plastic 47
92 Morinda citrifolia 47
93 Phage therapy using crispr 47
94 “Effect of exogenous application of salicylic acid on green gram (Vigna radiate (L.) Wilczek) irrigated with saline water” 48
95 Exophytic fungus Geastrum saccatum enhances the growth of Cicer areitinum 48
96 Natural AntiBiotics For Agriculture 49
97 Unbelievable Immunity System And Auto Therapy Of Cancer 49
98 CAR-T Could Revolutionize Cancer Treatment. It Can Also Be Fatal. 49
99 Cervical Cancer 49
100 ATOPIC Dermatitis in Dogs 49
101 Ketamine 49
102 The Isolation And Identification Of Petroleum Degrading Microorganisms 49
103 The Effect Of Phytochemicals On The Growth Of Microorganisms 49
104 The Isolation And Identification Of Petroleum Degrading Microorganisms 49


Dr Harshad Chauhan1 and Dr Kishan Sharma2
Departmnet of Veterinary Microbiology College of Veterinary Science and AH, SDAU, Sardarkrushinagar-385 506 (B.K.), Gujarat

The discovery and introduction of antimicrobial agents in clinical medicine was one of the greatest medical triumphs of the 20th century that revolutionized the treatment of bacterial infections. Infections that were common causes of death and disease in the pre-antibiotic era - rheumatic fever, syphilis, cellulitis and bacterial pneumonia - became treatable, and over the next 20 years most of the classes of antibiotics that find clinical use today were discovered and changed medicine in a profound way. However, the gradual emergence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogenic bacteria has today become a major global health concern. Antibiotic resistance is a type of drug resistance where a microorganism is able to survive exposure to an antibiotic. Resistance is unresponsiveness to antimicrobial agents in standard doses. The Resistant organisms will not be inhibited or killed by an antibacterial agent at its optimum concentrations. If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is called multi resistant or, superbug or super bacteria. Superbugs are visible manifestations of our prolonged failure to preserve antibiotics. Methicillin resistant Staph aureus(MRSA), MDR-and XDR Mycobacteria, ESBL producing Gram negative bacteria and NDM-1 producing enterobacteriaceae are few examples of superbugs because these fail to respond to large number of commonly used antibiotics. Multiple factors are responsible for these problems. Leading world health agencies consider the threat of AMR as paramount and recognize its complex causation: expanding human and domestic animal populations, increased globalization, international trade, and demand for animal source foods; and all-too-easy access to antimicrobials in both developed and developing countries. AMR has huge negative impact on human as well animal health. It is predicted that by 2050 more than 10 million people may die annually worldwide due to the problem of AMR. The world bank estimates that 28 million people are likely to be pushed into poverty as direct consequence of AMR. Livestock production may be reduced by 7.5 % throughout the world, thus damaging food security. Antimicrobial resistance has reached its tipping point, and some are saying we are now in the post-antibiotic era. AMR has become challenge to suistanable development goals. Containing AMR requires a comprehensive and integrated one health approach with coordinated efforts by human health, veterinary and environment sectors through a whole of society initiative. Antibiotics are a global public good. These are the precious resources for the current and next generation. Efforts need to be made by everyone to preserve available antibiotics for as long as possible. Urgent steps are needed to combat burgeoning resistant to antibiotics. Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat to global public health that requires action across all government sectors and society.If not contained, AMR is believed to cause significant impact to the health of humans, animals and the environment. Antibiotics are a limited and precious resource. Antibiotics must always be used responsibly. If we don’t take action today, there may be no cure tomorrow.

Conceptions And Prospects Of In Silico Multi-Target Drug Discovery (Mtdd) For Combating Drug Resistant Microbes
Rajesh Patel

Bioinformatics lab and supercomputing facility Department of Biosciences, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat, Gujarat, India

Drug resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in patients. Not only the development of acquired resistance may render current treatments inefficient but it can also influence the action of other drugs by cross-resistance mechanisms. in silico techniques helped us to predict drug resistance by a structure-based approach issued from the field of drug design to infer potential mutations on the drug target and a network-based approach from systems biology to study the interactions between functional and resistance pathways. The investigation of drug resistance indicated the need to design new therapies exploiting synergies between targeted and resistance pathway to efficiently manage resistant microbe. The multitarget drug is a key that can open multiple locks. Research into a multifunctional compound can follow two paths: comprehensive experimental analyses, or by first using computer-aided rational drug design; followed by screening and identifying potential targets, optimizing the research, and avoiding higher expenses. Furthermore, multitarget therapy is more effective than traditional drug therapy, which emphasizes maximum selectivity for a single target. By interacting with different targets, complex diseases of multifactorial origin are treated with greater effectiveness and in less time. Requiring smaller doses for simultaneous targets, multitarget therapies also feature lower toxicity and reduced side effects. The design and development of a single chemical entity that acts simultaneously at multiple molecular targets are gaining major consideration in drug discovery. Using computer-aided drug design (CADD), in silico methods were developed to facilitate the screening of new compounds with multitarget characteristics. Multi-target drug discovery (MTDD) aimed to find drug leads that at the same time interact with multiple target agents. These techniques are categorized into fragment-based and combinatorial approaches. Conventionally, for each individual target and to find virtual hits, combinatorial approaches perform parallel searches to determine which hit interacts with more than one target. in silico Multi-target drug discovery (MTDD) methods in drug, the design emerges as an advantageous process, since this investigation presupposes better results with lower expenses, as well as performs screening for several receptors that can interact with the drug, allowing the validation of a greater number of activities that can be tested a posteriori. However, despite the therapeutic potential of multitarget compounds, there are challenges regarding their discovery and development. Like the difficulty in choosing the right combination of targets involved in the diseases of interest, necessitating the understanding of target-disease action mechanism relationships and adverse effects profile, as well as establishing similar levels of activity for each target and design the molecules to avoid interactions with unwanted targets.

Role Of Diagnostics In Antimicrobial Resistance
Dr. Viral Shah

Head, Dept. of Microbiology, Unipath Specialty Laboratory Ltd., Ahmedabad

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is the ability of a microorganism (like bacteria, viruses, and some parasites) to stop an antimicrobial (such as antibiotics, antivirals and antimalarials) from working against it. As a result, standard treatments become ineffective, infections persist and may spread to others. Resistance occurs naturally over time through genetic changes but sometimes misuse and overuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control, inadequate sanitary conditions, inappropriate food-handling encourage the spread of antimicrobial resistance and accelerating this process. Rapid diagnostics test helps in identifying infection causing organism and provide susceptibility information which help clinician to prevent overuse and misuse of antibiotics.It allow broad-spectrum regimen to be replaced with narrow spectrum drugs, thereby reducing the risk of antibiotic-associated infections. It provides the necessary information to develop and monitor therapy guidelines, antibiotic stewardship programs, public health interventions, infection control policies, novel antimicrobials and vaccines. Thus, Laboratory based diagnostics test are integral part of antimicrobial resistance containment.


Chemical Science & Pharmacy

H. P. Parekh1 and M. H. Chauhan2 and V. H. Shah3

Department of Chemistry, Saurashtra University Rajkot-360005, India

Nowadays research is concentrated towards the introduction of new and safe therapeutic agents of clinical importance. The heterocycles are enjoying their importance as being the center of activity. The nitrogen containing heterocycles are found in abundance in most of the medicinal compounds. 1,2,4-triazoles are very interesting targets for medicinal and pharmaceutical applications. The constitution of all synthesized compounds (HP-101 to HP-110) has been elucidated by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectral data and elemental analyses. Keywords: Dimedone, Benz hydrazide, Triazolo-quinolines, Antimicrobial.

M. H. Chauhan1 and V. H. Shah 2

Department of Chemistry, Saurashtra University Rajkot-360005, India

Oxoindoline derivatives are interesting heterocyclic compoundswhich showdiverse biological and pharmacological properties. In this research oxoindoline derivative was prepared by one-pot condensation reaction of isatin, dimedone,and various active methylene using piperidine as a basic catalyst and methanol as a solvent under stirring at room temperature.The products were characterized by FT-IR, Mass, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Keywords:Multi-component reactions,Isatin,Dimedone,oxoindolines, Antimicrobial evaluation

M.N. Raja1 and D.H. Jani2

R.K. University, Rajkot, 360020, Gujarat, India Department of Chemistry, OM College of Science, Junagadh, 362001, Gujarat, India

Novel organic based compound 4-Acyl pyrazolone derivatives and their thermal activities were investigated. A new series of bis-pyrazolone containing ligand and their NI(II) based heterochelates were synthesized. The structure of bis-pyrazolone ligands were confirmed by 1H NMR, IR, Elemental analysis and their heterochelates were confirmed by thermal studies (TG/DTG & DSC) and FAB Mass spectroscopy. The results confirm that novel bis pyrazolone based Ni(II) complex have a higher stability and important for further investigation.

Mayur Vala

Dept. of Chemistry & Forensic Science, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University Junagadh-362263 (Gujarat) India

Recently synthesized Chalcone hybrid sulfonamide, coumarin quinoline, pyridine & carbazole compounds shows good biological activities than past synthesize chalcone derivatives. These hybrid compound shows good cytotoxic effect against different human cancer like luekemia, melanoma, ovarian carcinoma, breast cancer etc. Chalcone – carbazole compound also shows anti- urease activity.

Avani J. Gardhariya

Department of chemistry, Bahauddin science college – Junagadh

Paroxetine is a potent and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor(SSRI) with currently approved indication for the treatment of depression, obsessive -compulsive disorder, panic disorder and social phobia. It is also used in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, premenstrual dysphoric disorder and chronic headache. Paroxetine, a phenylpiperidinederivative, is the most potent inhibitor of the reuptake of serotonin of all the currently available antidepressants including the class of SSRIs. It is a very weak inhibitor of norepinephrine uptake but it is still more potent at this site than the other SSRIs. Paroxetine has little affinity for catecholaminergic, dopaminergic or histaminergic systems and by comparison with tricyclic antidepressants has, therefore, a reduced propensity to cause central and autonomic side effects. Paroxetine exhibits some affinity for the muscarinic cholinergic receptor but much less than the TCAs. Paroxetine is well absorbed orally and undergoes extensive first pass metabolism that is partially saturable.Paroxetine is well tolerated and effective in the treatment of both depressive and anxiety disorders across the age range. Keywords: Paroxetine, anxiety disorder, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor(SSRI),Antidepressants

Vibhuti Jadav

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science &Information Technology

Traditional herbal medicine are getting significant attention in global health debates several side effects came from chemical drugs use of non-chemical ,non-invasive natural remedies have no major adverse effects because contain naturally active biological components, possible use of leaf extract of papaya for treatment dengue fever promising cure for dengue patents.pomegranate contains high level of anti oxidants which make it one of the best fruits for boosting blood count, garlic and ginger are organosulfur compounds consisting upon its bioactive having on important role in cardiovascular dieseas and cancer respectively,wound healing properties are excited from aloevera gel fenugreek seed are best natural remedy pocs , onion have antidiabetic, carcinogenic, antibiotics, antimicrobial effect on the human health. Keyword: Dangue fever, hypertension,Anemia

Mori Presita U.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science &Information Technology

Empagliflozin ,a potent,highly selective,sodium glucose cotransporter -2 (SGLT2) inhibitor,is an effective and generally well tolerated antihyperglycaemic agentapproved for the treatment of 2 diabetes(T2D) in the EU,USA and japan , amongother parts of the world.As with other members of its class,empagliflozin offers the convenience of once-daily oral administration and carries a low inherant risk ofhypoglycaemia as a result ofit'sinsulin-independent mechanism of action,enabling itto be used as monotherapy and as component of combination therapy with otherantidiabetic agents with complimentary modes of action to improve glycaemic control in patients with T2D.Beyond lowering glucose,empagliflozin exerts a favorable effect on a number of nonglycaemic outcomes,including modestreductions in bodyweight and bloodpressure.As an adjunct to standard care,itdemonstrated cardioprotective and renoprotective properties largely independent of glycaemic control in patients with T2D and established cardiovascular disease(CVD) in a mandated cardiovascular(CV) outcomes trial.Empagliflozin well tolerated as monotherapy or as add-on therapy.

Aghera Mansi K.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science &Information Technology

This presentation provides a brief overview of the processes of drug delivery system. Our aim is to help scientists whose research may be relevant to drug delivery systemof their research report in a way that appropriately places their finding within the drugdelivery system process and thereby support effective transaction of preclinical research to humans. One overall theme of our article is that the processes is sufficiently long, complex, and expensive so that many biological targets must be considered for every new drug delivery system and new research tools that may be needed to investigate each new target. Taking the right path towards the productive 3rd generation of drug delivery technologies requires honest open ideas depot formulations. The drug delivery field needs to take a bold approach of designing the future drug delivery formulations first, based on today’s necessities, and produce necessary innovations. Keywords: Evolution of drug delivery, modulated delivery, targeted delivery, depot formulations

Isha Bhatt

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science &Information Technology

Abstract: The red tube shaped flowers of the firecracter bush(Bouvardia ternifolia) native to Mexico and the American southwest attrect humming birds. The bush contain chemical bouvarlin. The university of Colorado cancer center & CU boudder reasearcher. Find that the chemical bauvardin slow a cancer’s ability to make proteins that tell cancer cell to grow &spread the mplecule SVC112 based on bouvardin&synthesized by su’s Colorado-based pharmaceutical startup suvica LNC acts specifically against head&neck cancer steam cell resulting in better tumor control with less toxicity to healthy cell than exisiting FDA(Food&drug administration) approved protein synthesis inhibitors Keywords:Bouvardia ternifolia,Bouvardin,SVC112,cancer stem cell

Maradiya Fena D.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science &Information Technology

Anticancer drug gain access to solid tumors via the circulatory system and must penetrating the tissue to kill cancer cells. Here we study the distribution of doxorubicin in relation to blood vessels and religion of hypoxia in solid tumors of mice. Tumors cells can grow and interfere with the digestive, nervous, and circulatory system and they can release hormones that alter body functions. Doxorubicin is an anticancer drug. Doxorubicin is an antibiotic derived from the Streptomyces peucetius bacterium. It has a wide use as a chemotherapeutic agent; other include daunorubicin,indarubicin andepirubicin.commonly,doxorubicin isanagent used in treatment of solid tumors in adult and pediatric patients. Doxorubicin may be used to treat soft tissue and bon sarcomas as well as cancer s of breast,ovary, bladder, and thyroid. It is also used in treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia acute myeloblasticleukemia and small cell lung cancer. The liposomal formulation of doxorubicin has FAD-approval for ovarian cancer in patients who have failed platinum -based chemotherapy, AIDS -related kaposi sarcoma, and multiple myeloma.limiteddistribution of doxorubicin in solid tumors is an important and neglected cause of clinical resistance that is amenable to modification. Keywords: doxorubicun, chemotheraputicagent, tumercells, streptomycespeucetius.

Maradia Jinal R.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science &Information Technology

Photo redox catalysis has come to the forefront in organic chemistry as a powerful strategy for the activation of small molecules. In a general sense,these approaches rely on the ability of metal complexes and organic dyes to convert visible light in to chemical energy by engaging in single – electron transfer with organic substractes,there by generating reactive intermediate.In this perspective, we highlight the unique ability of photoredox catalysis to expedite the development of completely new reaction mechanisms with particular emphasis placed on multicatalytic strategies that enable the construction of challenging carbon-carbon and carbon- heteroAtom bonds. Keywords: powerful strategy,chemical bond,multicatelytic strategies,chemical energy.

Sagarkumar M. Dabhi1 and Sejalben H. Goswami 2

B. N. Patel institute of paramedical and science (science division), bhalej road, anand, &

Since the first bioactive peptide was synthesized in 1953 by Robert Bruce Merrifield, the research of protein and peptide drugs has been developing rapidly, and the research of protein and peptide drugs targeting multiple receptors has been carried out in the world. Protein and peptide drugs have many valuable applications in the clinic to treat or prevent diseases by modulating physiological or pathological processes. Protein and peptide drugs have many advantages, such as high bioactivity and specificity, strong solubility, and low toxicity. Therefore, the strategies for improving the bioavailability of protein peptides are reviewed, including chemical modification of nanocarriers, absorption enhancers, and mucous adhesion systems. The status, advantages, and disadvantages of various strategies are systematically analyzed. The systematic and personalized design of various factors affecting the release and absorption of drugs based on nanoparticles is pointed out. It is expected to design a protein peptide oral delivery system that can be applied in the clinic.

Parmar Mehulkumar P. 1 and Chavda Hiteshkumar S.2

B. N. Patel institute of paramedical and science (science division), bhalej road, anand, and

Flowers are playing an important role in our day to day life directly or indirectly.Not only flower but some plants,their seeds,leaves,roots,etc. can used for Medicinal purpose.Flowers have been an integral part of human beings Since ancient time for various purposes like ornamental, decorations, medicines, During religious rites, for Praying god ,essential oils, in beauty care products,etc.Flowers are used in treatment of Cancer, to releave stomach pain, in immune response, for digestive immune system, to control high blood pressure,for skin care, as antioxidents, runnynose,to treat fever, to treat liverdisorder,etc.

Patel Mo Hasim N

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science &Information Technology,

A new series of N,7-diphenyl-7h-benzo[7,8]chromeno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-8-amino derivatives was synthesized using formic acid as catalysed and solvent. The structures of the new derivatives were confirmed by the spectral data and elemental analyses. More over Antimicrobial and anifungle activities has been carry out usig S.aures S.pyogenes, E.coli, P.aeruginosa, C.albicans, A.niger and drugs Nystatin, Greseofulvin, Ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol for all new novel compounds Keywords: Chromeno, pyrimidine

Butanee Chand 1 and Butani Rushi 2

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science &Information Technology &

The heterocyclic compounds have good importance in medicinal chemistry. One of the most important heteocycles in medicinal chemistry is Quinazolinones.Quinazolinone derivativesare a group of compounds with different pharmacological activities or properties like Antimicrobial, antibacterial, antifungal, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, antiHIV, anticancer etc... There are some Quinazolinone derivatives are found which indicate Antimicrobial activity.Also from the investigation of Quinazolinones it is obtained that some of synthesised quinazolinone derivatives are showed antileismanial activity.(Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical parasitic disease caused by Leishmania parasitic protozoa affecting millions of people around the global ). So there are some Quinazolinone derivatives are good scaffolds for the synthesis of Antimicrobial agents, Antileishmaninal agents etc... Keywords: Quinazolinone& derivatives, Antimicrobial activities,Antileishmanial activities.

Gevariya Chirag M. 1 and Malaviya Krupali M.2

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science &Information Technology &

Tiny amounts of pharmaceuticals including antibiotics, hormones, mood stabilizers, and other drugs are in our drinking water supplies. IN an investigation by the Associated Press, drinking water supplies in 24 major city areas were found to include drugs. According to the investigation, the drugs get into the drinking water supply through several routes like some people flush unneeded medication down toilets; other medicine gets into the water supply after people take medication, absorb some and pass the rest out in urine. Some pharmaceuticals remain even after wastewater treatments and cleansing by water treatment plants. Although levels are low reportedly measured in parts per billion or trillion and utility companies contend the water is safe, experts from private organizations and the government say they can't say for sure whether the levels of drugs in drinking water are low enough to decrease harmful health effects. Keywords: Pharmaceuticals, drug, water

Chhatrala Pallavi M.1 and Maheta Jay B.2

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science &Information Technology &

The control of molecular alignment in liquid-crystal phases at macroscopic scales has been investigated extensively because of its importance in optical or optoelectronic applications, such as liquid-crystal displays. It is well established that liquid crystals can be aligned by an applied electric field, aMagnetic field, a shear-flow field, mechanical grooving of the substrate surface or stretching liquid-crystal polymer thin films. Here we report a new mechanical for liquid-crystal alignment that uses polarized laser light. We find that nematic liquid crystals in an illuminated region become oriented perpendicular to the electric-field polarization of the laser and remain aligned in the absence of the laser radiation. The liquid crystals can be reoriented again by subsequent illumination. This technique might have applications for large-area displays. Optical memories, binary optics, adaptive optics and molecular micro-assembly. Keywords: Liquid-crystal phases, Optical memories, Megnetic field.

Joshi Rucha M. 1Ram Heena A.2

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science &Information Technology and

Dyes and dyestuff find use in a wide range of food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, textile and leather industries. Many dyes and their breakdown products are carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic to life dye added waste water is a matter of global concern. In this project the graphne oxide absorb the methyl orange dye by using manganese dioxide. The graphene oxide is perfectly modified by hummer’s method and mno2 is prepared by potassium parmangante and hydrogen peroxide. This is characterized by XRD, Raman, FTIR and zeta potential this mixture are work very well with wide range of pH. Keywords:dyes, dyestuff, graphene oxide, Mno2, H2o2.

Dabhi Kiran B.1 and Hingrajia Gopi V.2

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science &Information Technology &

The three component reaction between 4 - hydroxycoumarin, malononitrile and carbonyl compound in ethanol in the presence of morpholine as a catalyst was studied. Only cyclic aliphatic ketones affords spiro 2-amino -3- cyanopyrano [3,2-c]chromene derivatives. Keywords: Spiro, Chromene, pyron

Naghera Ravina V. 1 and Ram Ila N.2

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science &Information Technology &

As heterocyclic compounds show good biological activity, we have synthesized nitrogen containing compounds among them 6b,8a and 8b have shown very good antimicrobial activity with remarkable inhibition zones N’-(anthracen-9-ylmethylene)-5-methy1-1-pheny1-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4 carbohydrazide and N’-(3-(benzyloxy)benzylidene)-5-methy1-1-pheny1-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4 carbohydrazide (6a-d,8a-d) was synthesized from various aldehyde and 5-methy1-1-pheny1-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4 carbohydrazide by condensation in acidic media. All intermediates and final compounds were confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, Mass Spectroscopy methods and IR analysis. Keywords: hydrazine, aldehyde, azides, triazole, antibacterial, anti fungal

Charavda Nikita S. 1 and Gandhi Feni A.2

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science &Information Technology

Green chemistry aims for less toxic solvents but in recent years new methods have been developed where organic synthesis can be performed without solvents,mild condition and low energy consumption solvents define major part of environmental performance of processes in chemical industry and also impact or cost, safety and health issues .the idea of green solvent expresses the goal to minimize the environmental impact resulting from the use of solvent in chemical production. Water, supercritical fluids, ionic liquids, non toxic liquids polymers and their varied combination are part of class of green solvants. Keywords: Green solvents, environment, chemical, polymer.

Parsaniya Shreya S.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science &Information Technology

Penicillin is a one type of antibiotics. Penicillin first time use doctors as antibiotics. They are several antibiotics inthe penicillin class. Penicillin work by interfering with bacteria cell wall. Penicillin is Less then 1% dangerously allergic to people. Side effects of this diarrhea, headache etc. Penicillin is made for a 6-APA and 2 phenylacetulchionide and penicillin color is White to slightly yellow and crystallinpowder. Penicillin melting point is 209-212 degree of celcius, they density is 1.41 and water soluble 5-10 Gram / 100 ml at 25 degree of celcius. They are approximately 50% plasma protein bound in most species Keywords: penicillin, antibiotics, synthesis, effect

Ram Jyoti J.1 and Vaghasiya Janki N.2

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science &Information Technology &

Nuclear fission in induced by bombarding sub atomic partical with the atomic nucleus of radioactive substance; this process induce a chain reaction where in neutrons are released along with humungous heat energy; the neutrons emitted which increases exponentially until the substance is decayed completely. Energy released in fission is in form of kinetic energy of fission fragement.fusion of lighter nuclei into heavier nuclei leads to loss of mass but not nucleons this loss of mass is the bindind energy;in accordance with E=MC2. Keywords: fission,energy,nuclear,radioactive substance.

Kodavala NutanD.

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science &Information Technology

The effective psychotherapeutic drug amitriptyline (ELAVIL) has been synthesized here to fore by the reaction between the grignard reagent derived 7-dimetheyl amino propylchoride and 5H-dibenzo[a,d]-10,11 di hydro 5-cyclohepten-5-one.for many year in amitriptyline drug gas been considerd compound for the pharmalogical treatment depression.Here new different-different tricyclicdrugs,hetrocyclic compound have been introduced in market amitriptyline is comparison with other tricyclic /heterocyclic antidepressent with different intermediate side effect is decrease in patients the dosage amitriptyline (intiated 10 mg increase to 40-60 mg )daily was not sufficient to depression antidepressants are useful in manegment of depressive disorder etc… research focushing on the use of antidepressent in india. Amitriptyline is tricyclic compound that have been approved for treatment the major affective disorder e.g.,(depression). Keywords: Amitriptyline, Antidepressants,hetrocyclic, propylchoride

Hiren Bhajgotar1 and Ajay Mori2

Dept. of Chemistry & Forensic Science, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University Junagadh-362263 (Gujarat) India

The Paterno-Buchi reaction is a photochemical reaction between a carbonyl compound and an alkene to give the corresponding oxetane. We try to describe the mechanism of the reaction on the basis of use of electron rich alkenes like enol ethers, enol esters, enol silylethers, enanines in the reaction with, reported heterocyclic compounds. The stereochemical behaviour of the reaction is particularly stressed. We pointed out the reported applications of this reaction to the synthesis of naturally occurring compounds.

Rathod Divya R.1 and Dodiya Swati B.2

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology &

Resestance to antibiotics has grown out to be serious health dilemma. Despite this serious health crisis, no new antibiotics have been revealed since last 30 y. A new ray of hope in the form teixobactin has come out of the dark which can prove to be effective in defeating resistance. This new antibiotics has an interesting mechanism of action against bacteria. Teixobactin represents the first member of a newly discovered class of antibiotics that act through inhibition of cell wall synthesis. It was isolated with a new tool, the iChip, teixobactin, a cyclic undecapeptide, displays excellent antibacterial activities against a range of pathogenic bacteria, such as methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This review article highlights various facets of teixobactin. Its chemistry, mode of action, in vitro and in vivo. Keywords:Teixobactin, antibacterial, antibiotics

Ravi Dashlani1 and Bagiya Mayur2

Dept. of Chemistry & Forensic Science, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University Junagadh-362263 (Gujarat) India

Pyridine and its derivatives are the important chemical compounds with tremendous application in the various field. The pyridine and its derivatives are found to have a large no. of biological activities which including Antimicrobial, Antiviral, Antifungal, Anti-HIV, Anticancer, Antidiabetic, Antitumor, Anticoagulant etc. Pyridine is also a very active nutraceutical found in the form of Vitamin B3 and B6. So, Pyridine derivatives also have increasing importance for medicinal application.

Zala Hina1 and Barad Krishna2

Dept. of Chemistry & Forensic Science, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University Junagadh-362263 (Gujarat) India

Some recently synthesized super-cool materials like Aluminum backed compound, mixture of Hafnium dioxide–silicone dioxide or glass, Polymethylpentene with silver, Fluorinated polymer with water and acetone and Cooling wood (Polymer wood align with cellulose) showing their good reflectivity against sunlight and having good cooling capacity. In this poster we are presenting activity and application of such type of compound.

Kinjal Dodia1 and Aruna Bheda2

Dept. of Chemistry & Forensic Science, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University Junagadh-362263 (Gujarat) India

TB is a major health problem in developing countries. Here we try to explain the importance of pyrazinamide(PZA) derivatives for the treatment of tuberculosis(TB). PZA kills or stops the growth of certain bacteria that causes tuberculosis, it is used with other drugs like isoniazid and rifampicin, from the cornerstone of morden TB therapy.

Bhautik Kanani1 and Abhishek Babariya2

Dept. of Chemistry & Forensic Science, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University Junagadh-362263 (Gujarat) India

Benzimidazole fungicide are developed and used for controlling wide variety of plant diseases in which 2­aryl Benzimidazole derivatives which contains sulphoxide group exhibits good inhibition activity towards boytrytis cinerea fungus compare to carbendazim

Mori Dhara1 and Chauhan Jigna2

Dept. of Chemistry & Forensic Science, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University Junagadh-362263 (Gujarat) India

A synthesis of different type of bioactive embelin derivatives by microwave-assisted Domino Knoevenagel hetro-Diels-Alder reaction (DKHDA) by different type of substituent on the nitrogen atom of the ß-enaminon to obtain nitrogen & oxygen containing ring. Alternatively, bioactive embelin derivatives is also form by using O-(Arylpropynyloxy)-salicyldihydes in presence of ethylenediamine diacetate. A brief review is described here.

Jinal Panseriya1 and Rupal Hirapara2

Dept. of Chemistry & Forensic Science, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University Junagadh-362263 (Gujarat) India

Copper catalyst are widely use in numerous commercial chemical process, pharmaceuticals and polymers (C-C, C-N, C-O, C-S molecules). The recent development in cross coupling reaction using transition metal catalyst afforded powerful tools for the formation of carbon hetero atom bond. The development of new molecule via simple and economical way continuously attract the chemist with their application values.

Barad Kajal1 and Bhola Ajai2

Dept. of Chemistry & Forensic Science, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University Junagadh-362263 (Gujarat) India

Solid Phase combination of diaminodiacids is one of the most effective approaches for synthesis of peptide disulfide bond mimics. Diaminodiacid is only four atom linkage mimics are available that not fully meet the activity optimization requirement. in this poster we explain a formation of thioether (c-c-s-c-c) bridge and new disulphide bond by SPPS. Efficient contruction of 1,2,3-triazole bridges as disulfide in peptide, utilizing the diaminodiacids strategy was also explained.

Vala Kirti1 and Maru Mansi2

Dept. of Chemistry & Forensic Science, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University Junagadh-362263 (Gujarat) India

Preparation of indole derivative from easily accessible starting material under visible light irradiation and Cu catalyst without need for expensive metal and harsh reaction condition. Rhodium catalysed benzannulation of pyrroles thus leading to substituted indole. A pd catalysed method for preparation of N-alkyl indole via intermediate of N-aryl N-alkyl benzophenone hydrazone is also explained.

Sakhiya Ravi1 and Atroliya Ram2

Dept. of Chemistry & Forensic Science, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University Junagadh-362263 (Gujarat) India

Pyrimidine derivatives like 5-fluorouracil synthesis by different pathways. Uracil is very potent candidate for anticancer agent due to its biological background. The uracil derivatives show different activity on the basis of substitution which we try to explain here.

Dhandhukiya Sanjay1 and Chudasama Kanji2

Dept. of Chemistry & Forensic Science, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University Junagadh-362263 (Gujarat) India

A new multi component reaction (MCR) of oxo components, primary amines, thiacarboxylic acid and a special isocynide yield 2,4- disubstituted thiazole is described. This one pot one step reaction is an alternative to current methods of thiazole ring formation and can be applied to combinatorial chemistry as well as in the total synthesis of thiazole containing natural product.

Patat Bharat1 and Belim Mohinkhan2

Dept. of Chemistry & Forensic Science, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University Junagadh-362263 (Gujarat) India

A number of novel isoqunolines were available applied in cancer cell cultures. The substituted isoqunoline was synthesised under suitable condition and by simple operation to good yields. The product serves as a lead compound for the treatment of cancer. This review paper related to new isoqunoline derivatives, to process for their preparation, to pharmaceutical composition and to their used in medicines.

Devaliya Rohit1 and Keshvala Bhavesh2

Dept. of Chemistry & Forensic Science, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University Junagadh-362263 (Gujarat) India

The toxicity and volatile nature of many organic solvents caused serious threats to the environment. To avoiding the use of solvents in synthesis can reduce environmental contamination and even be more convenient than using solvent-based synthesis. Thus, design of solventless catalytical reaction has received tremendous attention in recent times in the area of green synthesis. Thus, here included solvent free synthesis of metal complexes via mechanochemical and nonmechanochemical pathway. Remarkably in many cases, mechanochemical synthesis of metal complexes is actually faster and more convenient than the original solvent-based methods. Examples of solvent free methods other than grinding are also briefly discussed, and positive outlook for this growing topic is emphasised.

Bhavesh Dabhi1 and Mohan Kadachha2

Dept. of Chemistry & Forensic Science, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University Junagadh-362263 (Gujarat) India

Derivatives of heterocyclic compounds have very much advantages and importance in synthetic medicinal chemistry. Rhodanine (2-thioxothiazolidin-4-one) is the most important heterocyclic compound. Rhodanine has high ability to use as lead structure for design a new drug. The paper’s target is to show antibacterial biological activity of Rhodanine which was recently identified.

Jasmin Chavada1 and Parth Dudhatra2

Dept. of Chemistry & Forensic Science, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University Junagadh-362263 (Gujarat) India

The present review deals with identification of anti-tubercular activity of various aldehyde derivatives synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation method. The formation of pyrazole derivatives by reaction with phenyl isothiocyanate was also explained. The screened derivatives for anti-tubercular activity was discussed.

Ambaliya Gova1and Chandera Anil2

Dept. of Chemistry & Forensic Science, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University Junagadh-362263 (Gujarat) India

The Phytochemical investigation of fruits of Angelica lucida has led to the isolation and characterization of five known coumarins. The extracts and isolated compound from A. lucida have also evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against six gram positive and negative bacteria, two oral pathogens and three human pathogenic fungi. salmonella infants skn557 and salmonella typhimurium more resistant to coumarin derivatives.

Maru Miral1 and Bheda Tejna2

Dept. of Chemistry & Forensic Science, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University Junagadh-362263 (Gujarat) India

The Rh catalysed carbocylation of oxime via C-C activation in benzocyclobutenone activated by Rh catalyst. Decarbonylative oxidation of cyclic diketone by catalytic activity generat purine and isocoumarins. Alkylation of various heterocycles which available alylic alcohol is also explained. A range of reaction obtain different good yield in presence of various solvent with excellent enantioselective.

Meghanathi Ajaygiri1 and Usadadiya Gaurang2

Dept. of Chemistry & Forensic Science, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University Junagadh-362263 (Gujarat) India

The Ugi reaction of an o-iodobenzaldehyde, aniline, isocyanide, and a carboxylic acid afforded a-acetamido-aphenylacetamide in good to excellent yields. The palladium-catalyzed intramolecular C-H functionalization of these adducts under ligand less conditions provided the functionalized dihydrophenanthridines. Phenanthridine and 5,6-dihydrophenanthridine alkaloids are found throughout a wide range of natural resources, exhibiting various biological activities including antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activity.

Kamaliya Piyush1and Balas Akshay2

Dept. of Chemistry & Forensic Science, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University Junagadh-362263 (Gujarat) India

A novel and efficient method has been developed for the synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives using (N-isocyanimino)triphenylphosphorane, a secondary amine, a carboxylic acid, and an aromatic aldehyde in CH2Cl2 at ambient temperature in high yields without using any catalyst or activation. The procedure provides an alternative method to the synthesis of fully substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives.

ThakarJignasha A.1 and Khatri Saniya2

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Do you know the smell of the air before or after it rains? It isn't the water that you smell, but a mixture of other chemicals. The name given to the characteristic odour of rain after it rains, especially following a dry spell, is petrichor.Petrichor is caused primarily by a molecule called geosmin. Geosmin is produced by Streptomyces, a Gram–positive type of Actinobacteria. The chemical is released by the bacteria when they die. It is a bicyclic alcohol. Humans are very sensitive to geosmin. Geosmin is found in beets and also freshwater fish, such as catfish and carp, where it concentrates in fatty skin and dark muscle tissues. Geosmin isn't the only molecule that you smell after it rains. It has been analysed air from rain storms and found ozone, geosmin and also aromatic plant oils. During dry spells, some plants release the oil, which is absorbed into clay and soil around the plant. The purpose of the oil is to slow seed germination and growth, since it would be unlikely for the seedlings to prosper with insufficient water. The researchers think these aerosols carry the rain like aroma. Scientists have long observed that raindrops can trap and release aerosols when they fall on water, but this is the first time they've observed the process happening on soil. Keywords: Geosmin, Argosmin, Petrichor, Decalol, Decalene, Germacradienol, Farnesyl diphosphate, Terpene, Bicyclic alcohol, E1 mechanism.

Javiya Vasu1 and Aparnathi Abhishek B.2

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Pembrolizumb is a humanized antibody used in cancer immunotherapy. This includes to treat melanoma,lung cancer,head&nack cancer and stomach canser. It is given in form of injection through a vein. The programmed cell death protein 1(PD1) is one of the check point that regulates the immune response. The expression of PD1 on effector T-cell and PDL-1 on neoplastic cells enables tumer cells to evade anti-tumor immunity. Blockage of PD1 is an important immunotherapeutic strategy for cancers. Pembrolizumab (keytruda) is a humanized monoclonal anti-PD1 antibody.That has been extensively investigated in numerous malignancies in melanoma refractory to targeted therapy,pembrolizumab induced overall response rates of 21 to 34%. In refractory non-small cell ling cancer(NSCLC). Molecular analysis also showed that tumors with high gene mutation burdens. Which might result in the formation of more tumor related neo-antigens had better responses to pembrolizumab. Immune related adverse events including thyroid,disfunction,hepatitis and pneumonities are more serious and may lead to cessation of treatment. Keywords: Melanoma,non-small cell,Lung cancer,PD1,PDL1,PDL2,Pembrolizumab,Solid tumor

Shivam Hiteshbhai Pandya1 and Mansi Rajeshbhai Maradiya2

B. N. Patel institute of paramedical and science (science division),bhalej road, anand &

Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) belonging to the genus Nicotiana. The main products of the tobacco crop is cigarettes. Tobacco as its main raw materials containing hazardous substances. One of the hazardous substance is nicotine. Nicotine has the alternative to be used, in the form of other products. Extract nicotine from tobacco leaves, then extract the nicotine may be a better product in order to have value, such as pesticides or insecticides in agriculture. The properties of nicotine is soluble to some types of solvents. This is the reason for the extraction of nicotine by using a solvent extraction method. Later in the extraction of nicotine as an alkaloid in tobacco, ether and petroleum ether solvent is advantageous because it is selective in dissolving the alkaloid substances. Using the right combination of ether and petroleum ether will optimize time of extraction and the yield of nicotine on nicotine extraction process. The method used is the response surface method with central composite designconsisting of two factors: the addition of ether and petroleum ether. While the dependent variables or response time of extraction and nicotine yield. The result of the research revealed that the addition of ether and petroleum ether solvent significantly affect the response time of extraction and yield.

KarudSafvan1 and Batak Soheb2

Department of Chemistry, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Today fertilizer has become to modern agriculture to feed the growing population. Chemical fertilizers are used extensively in modern agriculture, in order to improve crop yield. Urea is the most popular and widely used dry Nitrogen fertilizer. The objective of the present study is to characterize the effect of fertilizers on the earthworm. The effects of soil fertilization with inorganic and organic fertilizers on earthworm rearing (populations, biomass, number of cocoons, juveniles etc.) were studied under different doses of the fertilizers for 60 days. When compared, marked changes were observed in the activity of Eiseniafoetida in both type of fertilizers introduced. The present work indicates towards the deleterious effect of inorganic fertilizers on the survival of earthworm community in soil. Keywords: Earthworms, organic fertilizers, chemical fertilizers, cocoons, biomass.

Jethava Ravi M.1 and Jethava Jayesh M.2

Government Science College, Veraval

Tetracycline are broad spectrum antibiotics, which are chemical substances produced by a microorganism that are able to kill other microorganisms without being toxic to the person, animal or plant.Tetracycline is used to treat a wide variety of infections, including acne. It is an antibiotic that works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections. Tetracycline can also be used in combination with anti-ulcer medications to treat certain types of stomach ulcers. Keywords:Microorganism, Inhibit growth of bacteria, Anti-ulcer medications

Mori Harshad M.1 and Katariya Gautam K.2

Government Science College, Veraval

Cephalosporin antibiotics are bactericidal against most gram positive cocci and gram negative bacilli of clinical importance. They are relatively nontoxic but like the penicillinsmay cause hypersensitivity reactions. Aeruginosa and gram negativebacilli that are resistant to multiple drug. It is also effective for treating more serious infection, such as septicaemia and meningitis. Cephalosporins are bactericidal and have the same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics. Cephalosporins disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. Cephalosporins are antibiotics used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections, such as respiratory tract infections, skin infections and urinary tract infections. Keywords: Antimicrobial drug, antibiotics, gram positive cocci, gram negative bacilli, beta-lactam

Vyas Hirva M.1 and Aparnathi Krupali G.2

Government Science College, Veraval

An Antimicrobial agent kills microorganisms or stops their growth, these are many types like antibiotics, antifungals, antiviruses etc. Antibiotics that kill microorganisms are called microbicidal and antibiotics that inhibit the growth of microorganisms are called microbiostatic. Penicillin is a group of antibiotics derived originally from moulds known as penicillium moulds. It contains beta-lactam unit in chemical structure. Penicillin used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia and other respiratory tract infection, scarlet fever, and ear, skin, gum, mouth and throat infections. Keywords: Antimicrobial drug, antibiotics, penicillium, beta-lactum

Jadav Bhargavi Ajitbhai1 and DodiyaJignaRamsinhbhai2

P.K.M College, Junagadh

This work presents a perspective that recycling environment air Pollution and its convert into paints, pigments, printing ink.A description of how capture air Pollution by Kaalink, about Kaalink, process of air ink advantages and future scopes the rationale behind.This effort is that controlling air Pollution and in future the overall air pollution will be controlled and health problems which affecting by air pollution will be reduce.Kaalink can collect 95% pollutant. Keywords: Recycling,Air pollution, Air ink, Kaalink, Paints, Pigment.

Dal Amin H.1 and Kamaliya Hiren R.2

Government Science College, Veraval

Antifungals have always been considered as one of the astonishing discoveries of the 21th century. Skin is an important organ of the body due to accessible and convenient site for drug administration. The present treatment of fungal includes the systematics administration of antifungal agents. These formulation involves systematic effects and less concentration of drug at the side of infection. The nano particles have been used as drug delivery systems to increase effects or reduced toxicity. Keywords:Antifungalagent,Disease,Infection, Buccal gel, Mucoadhesive tablets

Pnadya Param Jadishbhai1 and Padhiyar Roshniben Mahendrakumar2

B.N.Patel Institute Of Paramedical and Science, Anand &

Nanomaterials have been developed for medical applications ow- ing to their appealing properties. First, their size is of the same order of magnitude as that of various biological materials such as enzymes, proteins and lipids, hence promoting interactions with them, and they are larger than most individual molecules used as standard drugs, resulting in better tissue interaction and larger accumulation in targeted organs for nanomaterials than for stan- dard drugs. Second, nanomaterials have a large exposed surface area, which enables them to adjust their properties by changing their surface charge, composition or chemistry, or by binding to their surface molecules of interest such as specific ligands or chemotherapeutic molecules. These properties, which are stimulating from the point of view of research, make it hard to set up a well-established regulatory frame- work, hence delaying the use of nanomedicine for human treat- ments. In addition, because each group working on a different nanomaterial tries to highlight the advantages of its system com- pared with others, it is difficult to identify a nanosystem that is better than others. However, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have paved the way among the most widely studied nanomaterials, owing to their biocompatibility and multiple ways in which they can trigger therapeutic activity. In this review, after a brief presentation of IONP manufacturing methods and physicochemical properties, the dif- ferent mechanisms of action as well as treatments for specific dis- eases in which IONPs are involved are described.

Bhutani Jay Kishorbhai1 and Patel Panthini Jasvantbhai2

B.N.Patel Institute Of Paramedical and Science, Anand &

Oxidation is any chemical reaction that involves the moving of electrons. Specifically, it means the substance that gives of electrons is oxidised.iron reacts with oxygen that forms a chemical called because it has been oxidized and oxygen has been reduced. Formula of rusting is: 4Fe + 3O2 ? 2Fe2O3 xH2O?Fe2O3.x H2O. Reduction reaction always comes together with an oxidation reaction. Oxidation and reduction together are called redox reaction. Oxygen does not have to be present in a reaction for it to be a redox reaction. Inshort oxidation is the loss of electrons It has been discovered that potassium permanganate is an effective heterogeneous oxidant.It is used in water treatment, medical uses, synthesis of organic compounds, analytical use fruit preservation, survival kits fire service etc. It has the chemical formula KMnO4 and is a salt consisting of K+ and MnO4-

Chaudhary Asfaq Hussai

B.N.Patel Institute Of Paramedical and Science, Anand

Patients often suffer from side effects due to the doses used in the treatments for fighting cancer. How can this two-fold problem be managed? Scientists analysed 200 combinations of different anti-tumor drugs. They employed a new technique to test the impact of a combination on a cancer cell and healthy cell simultaneously. They discovered a highly promising mix of four components that can kill tumor cells while leaving healthy cells undamaged. The fight against cancer involves eradicating cancer cells but current treatments inevitably have negative consequences on healthy cells. Patients often develop a resistance to the drugs and suffer from side effects due to the doses used in the treatments. How can this two-fold problem be managed? Scientists from the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, analysed 200 combinations of different anti-tumour drugs in an attempt to reduce the doses. They employed a new technique to test the impact of a combination on a cancer cell and healthy cell simultaneously. The researchers discovered a highly promising mix of four components, called C2. That can kill tumour cells while leaving healthy cells undamaged. You can read about these very hopeful results in the journal Cancers.

Panchal vraj P.1 and Prajapati Dhruval B.2

B.N.Patel Institute Of Paramedical and Science, Anand &

Cocaine might be a well-known stimulant, but studies show this drug has long been used as a topical anaesthetic in the Andean tribal communities of South American thanks to its numbing properties. Cocaine is also used as a treatment for irritable bowel disease and other intestinal dysfunctions. Most famous, however, is cocaine's ability to alleviate headaches; it was originally an active ingredient in the beverage Coca-cola, before the substance was made illegal.

Shivam Hiteshbhai Pandya1 and Mansi Rajeshbhai Maradiya2

B.N.Patel Institute Of Paramedical and Science, Anand &

Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) belonging to the genus Nicotiana. The main products of the tobacco crop is cigarettes. Tobacco as its main raw materials containing hazardous substances. One of the hazardous substance is nicotine. Nicotine has the alternative to be used, in the form of other products. Extract nicotine from tobacco leaves, then extract the nicotine may be a better product in order to have value, such as pesticides or insecticides in agriculture. The properties of nicotine is soluble to some types of solvents. This is the reason for the extraction of nicotine by using a solvent extraction method. Later in the extraction of nicotine as an alkaloid in tobacco, ether and petroleum ether solvent is advantageous because it is selective in dissolving the alkaloid substances. Using the right combination of ether and petroleum ether will optimize time of extraction and the yield of nicotine on nicotine extraction process. The method used is the response surface method with central composite designconsisting of two factors: the addition of ether and petroleum ether. While the dependent variables or response time of extraction and nicotine yield. The result of the research revealed that the addition of ether and petroleum ether solvent significantly affect the response time of extraction and yield.

Pandya Nidhi Alpeshkumar1 and Patel Srujal Sureshbhai2

B.N.Patel Institute Of Paramedical and Science, Anand &

Drug repositioning (also referred to as drug repurposing), the process of finding new uses of existing drugs, has been gaining popularity in recent years. The availability of several established clinical drug libraries and rapid advances in disease biology, genomics and bioinformatics has accelerated the pace of both activity-based and in silico drug repositioning. Drug repositioning has attracted particular attention from the communities engaged in anticancer drug discovery due to the combination of great demand for new anticancer drugs and the availability of a wide variety of cell- and target-based screening assays. With the successful clinical introduction of a number of non-cancer drugs for cancer treatment, drug repositioning now became a powerful alternative strategy to discover and develop novel anticancer drug candidates from the existing drug space. In this review, recent successful examples of drug repositioning for anticancer drug discovery from non-cancer drugs will be discussed.

Debashis Banerjee

Dept. of Biotechnology,Faculty of Science, Atmiya University, "Yogidham Gurukul", Rajkot.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is the ability of a pathogen to overcome the action of an antimicrobial compound designed against it. AMR among the various clinical pathogens is an emerging worldwide threat. According to latest survey by WHO, FAO and OIE, clinical strains have developed resistance against almost every antibiotic available. Therefore there is an urgent need to develop alternative therapies that can reverse the growing menace of antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), have emerged as the frontline candidates in this war against the microbes.They have many advantages viz.are evolutionary conserved,exhibits significant, broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, are promptly synthesized during infection at the expense of low metabolic energy, can kill bacteria in micromolar range and employ both membrane lytic and intracellular modes of antimicrobial action. Most significantly, due to their small size, amphipathic structure and cationic property they can rapidly diffuse to the point of infection, a mechanism that presumably makes it easier to circumvent the microbial resistance against them.These properties make AMPs as attractive alternative antimicrobial candidates. AMPs have been isolated from various sources till date e.g. insects, amphibians, plants etc. but still many natural sources remain relatively unexplored.

Delvadiya Indrajay R.

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh – 362001

The field investigations were carried out for standardization of hybrid seed production techniques in brinjal cv. GJHB-4 at Sagadividi Farm, Department of Seed Science and Technology, and germination and viability test at Laboratory of Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, during late kharif 2019 to study effect of day of emasculation, time of pollination and crossing ratio on fruit set and seed yield of brinjal hybrid as well as to know the effect of different storage condition and storage time on pollen germination and viability percentage. The interaction effect of time of pollination and crossing ratio found non significant in case of all hybrid seed yield related parameter. But the separate effect of emasculation of bud carried out at previous day of pollination and the pollination done at 9:00 to 10: 00 am with two female flower buds per male flower (2:1) gave significantly maximum fruit set percent (53.73, 49.24, 51.06% respectively), number of seeds per fruit (294.81, 296.71, 262.72 g respectively), hybrid Seed yield (16.22, 11.87, 13.95 g, respectively) and test weight (5.34, 5.35, 5.29 g respectively). The pollen stored in refrigerated condition recorded significantly higher pollen germination percent (69.58%) and viability of pollen (61.88%). While, fresh pollen also gave maximum pollen germination percent (94.84%) and viability of pollen (90.88%).

Srushti B. Karia

J. M. Science College, Veraval

The experiments was carried to evaluate the efficacy of 10 different medicinal plant extracts i.e. Allium sativum (Garlic), Azadirachta indica(Neem), Datura metal (Datura), Calotropis giganta(Aakado), Cherimoya (Custard apple), Cassia fistula (Garmado), Lantana camara, Tridaxprocumbens(Ekdandi), Pongamiapinnata(Karanja), Carica papaya (Papaya). Majority of the plant were collected from the Junagadh, Gujarat. Groundnut and wheat are majorly cultivated in the Saurashtra region of Gujarat, India. Wheat LOK-1 and groundnut GG20 variety were collected. Wheat and groundnut seeds were treated by dipping separately into different plant extracts. Four fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Sclerotium rolfsii, Macrophominaphaseolina and Fusarium oxysporumwere collected from Junagadh agriculture university (JAU) and Department of groundnut research centre (DGR). On the basis of germination effect and antifungal activity from the best extract we prepared mixture in the specific ratio Garlic: Aakdo : Neem (25:20:5) were mixed together for formulation preparation. Thus, plant extract can successfully be used for controlling seed borne fungal pathogens of wheat and groundnut instead environment hazardous chemicals for treating seeds of wheat in India. Keywords: plant extracts, seed germination, seed associated fungi, wheat seeds

Aghera Nilesh D.

Department of Biotechnology, Atmiya University, Rajkot

In recent time single or multi drug resistance is observed in most of the opportunistic pathogens and this problem is increasing day by day and according to a report by WHO this problem wouldaggravate more. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are short peptides found in all sorts of organism from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes as a component of innate immune response. Theyare moresignificant in invertebrates as they don’t have a developed immune system. AMPsarea rich source of putative antimicrobial agents with novel mechanisms and a broad range of action. A rapidly growing number of these peptides have been reported from many sources. They have become very good and effective therapeutic agent to counter drug resistant microorganism, even the multidrug resistant pathogens. These AMPs have many advantages over the conventional antibiotics like short sequence of amino acids, rapid and broad spectrum in action, no side effects, immune modulatory effects etc.So due to these advantages the AMPs have the potential to effectively replace the conventional antibioticsand counter the issue of antibiotic resistance in the post antibiotic era.

Chavda Ami S.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Virus that infect bacteria, known as bacteriophage or phages in general, were discovered nearly 100 years ago. Their potential as antibacterial agent was appreciated almost immediately, with the first “phage therapy” trial predating Fleming’s discovery of penicillin .In this study, it is considered that phage therapy can be used for treating bacterial infection in human, domestic animals and even bio control in food. Following work is in overview to explore the experimental method of mixing therapeutic phage. Phage therapy is important alternative to antibiotics for treating multi drug resistance pathogens. Specificity of phage infection and its mechanism of replication is used in phage cocktail therapy. Phage therapy is used as an alternative therapy to antibiotics treatment. Keywords: Bacteriophage, Bacteriophage therapy, Antibiotic resistance, Phage safety.

Dhanesha Kinjal

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Multi-drug resistance (MDR) has become the largest obstacle to the success of cancer chemotherapies.MDR occurs frequently after long term chemotherapy, resulting in cancer and tumor recurrence. There for to understand mechanism of MDR is too important. Complicated mechanism of MDR Include: over expressing ATP - binding cassette (ABC) transporters to increase drug efflux, resulting in a decrease in intracellular drug concentration. Other mechanisms of MDR are reducing drug uptake by influx transporters, boosting drug metabolism, blocking apoptotic signaling pathways, elevating adaptability by epigenetic regulation and micro regulation, mutation in drug targets or feedback activation of other targets and signaling pathways, and change of tumor microenvironment.There for, Combating MDR is an important issue. For the treatment, application of drug loaded Nano particles (NPs) also called therapeutic Nano particles to combat cancer chemo-resistance the best studied mechanism of resistance is mediated through the alteration in the Drug Efflux proteins responsible for the removal of many commonly used anticancer drugs. Here the possible mechanisms of therapeutic NPs to combat cancer chemo resistance are reviewed, including prolonging drug systemic circulation lifetime, targeted drug delivery, stimuli-responsive drug release, endocytic uptake of drugs and co-delivering chemo-sensitizing agents. We also call attention to the current challenges and needs of developing therapeutic NPs to combat cancer drug resistance. Keywords: Multi-drug resistance, cancer chemotherapy, nano-particle drug delivery, drug efflux, combating, chemo-sensitizing agents.

Honey S. Lodhiya

The discovery of Klotho (KL) gene, which was originally identified as a putative aging-suppressor gene, has generated tremendous interest and has advanced understanding of the aging process. In mice the over expression of KL gene extends the life span, whereas mutations to the KL gene encode the Alpha-Klotho protein, which is a multifunctional protein that regulates the metabolism of Phosphate, Calcium, and Vitamin D. This may also function as hormone, although the Alpha-Klotho receptor(s) has not been found. Point mutations of the KL gene in humans are associated with hypertension and numerous kidney diseases indicate that Alpha-Klotho is crucial for the maintenance of normal renal function. Three types of Alpha-Klotho protein with potentially different functions have been identified: a full length transmembrane Alpha-Klotho, a truncated soluble Alpha-Klotho, and a secreted Alpha-Klotho. Recent evidences suggest that it suppresses the insulin, inhibits oxidative stress, and regulates phosphatase and calcium absorption. This current understanding of the molecular biology of the Alpha-Klotho protein may offer insights into its function and role in aging.

Jivani Umang R.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

A binaural beat is an auditory illusion perceived when two different pure-tone sine waves, both with frequencies lower than 1500 Hz, with less than a 40 Hz difference between them, are presented to a listener dichotically (one through each ear).The power of binaural beats was discovered in 1839 by Heinrich Winhelm Dove.136 years later, Gerald Oster published an article called “ Auditory beats in brain ”, which was published in “ Scientific American ” in 1973 there are five type of binaural beats delta waves it’s fervency between 0.1 to 4 Hz mainly use for deep sleep ,pain relief ,access to unconscious mind .theta waves frecqvancy between 4to 8 Hz useful for deep relaxation ,creativity ,gogic status . analytical thinking problem solving and stimulates energy action .gamma waves freqvancy 30 to 100 Hz it’s waves affect not only human mind but livelihood of the entire world mainly use to memory recall ,high –level information processing. Keywords: Bineural, Beats, Frequency, Waves

Jivani Happy P.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Cancer is a disease of the cell, which are the body`s basic building blocks. It occurs when abnormal cell divide and multiply in uncontrolled way. There are many types of cancer and each type cancer develop differently. Some grow slowly than some grow very rapidly, and some are behave unpredictably. Primary cancer is refers to the first mass of cancer call in organ or tissue which are known as tumor. If cancer cell from the primary site move through the body’s bloodstream or lymph vessels to a new site, they can multiply and form other malignant tumor. This is known as secondary or metastatic cancer. Cancer remains a major public health problem in the world with the global burden of cancer continuing to increase. Despite these improvements, current treatments have had little impact on 5-year overall survival in patients with advanced disease, and drug resistance remains a significant obstacle for successful treatment. Natural products have played an important role as an effective source of antitumor agents. It is estimated that up to 30–40% of the anticancer drugs used globally are derived from plant sources. The exploration of medicinal plants continues to hold significant promise for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Keywords: Cancer, tumor, metastatic cancer, Natural products, medicinal plants.

Parmar Priyanka M.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Every new anti-cancer drug or drug combination is evaluated for safety and efficacy before being approved. Clinical development of cytotoxic anticancer drugs classically follows three main phases. Phase I trials represent the first administration of a new drug or combination to human beings. Their primary goal is to determine the recommended phase two dose and also to collect toxicity, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics data. Phase II trials are screening studies aimed at identifying signals of anti-tumor activity in a specific tumor type and setting. Phase III trials aim to compare the efficacy of a new treatment with standard of care and can lead to regulatory approval when positive. The recent emergence of molecularly targeted agents has challenged the traditional developmental pathway for anti-cancer drugs. Using biomarker enriched patient populations has been successful for a few agents. Otherwise, new types of trials have been proposed for these agents in an attempt to elucidate their mechanism of action, such as phase 0 trials and "window of opportunity" trials. These two types of trials and the classical three phase trials are discussed in detail. Keywords: Anticancer, Treatment, Drugs, Tumor.

Thanki Nehal K.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Nitrogen is the most limiting nutritional factor for the growth of plants. But plant cannot reduce atmospheric nitrogen, they require exogenously fixed nitrogen for their growth and development. Biological nitrogen fixation is a process where atmospheric nitrogen is reduced to ammonia. And nitrogenise microbial enzyme is catalyse this reaction. Bio-fertilizer contain microorganisms which promote the adequate supply of nutrient to the host plants and ensure their proper development of growth and regulation in their physiology. A Production of bacterial bio-fertilizer require the selection of appropriate strain for a particular crop in a given Agro-climate. Agro-climate condition and soil characteristics are widely, a large range of strain of each bio-fertilizer needs to isolate for each area. A Bio-fertilizer are eco-friendly and one of the best modern tool for agriculture. It offers an economically attractive and ecologically sound route for formative nutrient supply. A leguminous plant have ability to fix Nitrogen from atmosphere. This can benefit not only legumes but also any subsequent crops. It is alternate to chemical fertilizers. Keywords: Bio fertilizer, Agro climate, Nitrogen fixation, Legumes

Bamrotiya Bhumi A.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

The success of cancer therapy can be difficult to predict, as its efficacy is often predicated upon characteristics of the cancer, treatment that are not fully understood or are difficult to ascertain. The response of disease to treatment is therefore essential & traditionally has been characterized by change in tumour volume. The molecular imaging has become part of standard care for many types of cancer. Where other diagnosis imaging producers such as x-rays, Computed Tomography (CT) & Positron Emission Tomography (PET). In the current methods for evaluating response to treatment & provide an overview of PET molecular imaging method that help guide future cancer therapy. Molecular imaging will allow clinicians to not only see where a tumour is located in the body, but also to visualize the expression and activity of specific molecular (e.g., proteases and protein kinases) and biological processes (e.g., apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis) that influence tumour behaviour or response to therapy. Keywords: Molecular imaging, Computer Tomography (CT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

Bheda Krishna R.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

As more antibiotics are rendered ineffective by drug- resistance bacteria, focus must be shifted towards alternative therapies for treating infections. Although several alternatives already exist in nature, the challenge is to implement them in clinical use. Advancements within biotechnology, genetic engineering, and synthetic chemistry have opened up new avenues tow ards the search for therapies that can substitute for antibiotics. Whilst the use of bacteriophages and antibodies has been partly implemented, other promising strategies, such as probiotics, lysine and antimicrobial peptides are in various stages of development. Propitious concepts such as genetically modified phages, antibacterial oligonucleotides, andCRISPR-Cas9 are also included. The approval of bacteriophages for treatment and prophylaxis of infection, and for use as an alternative to antibiotics. Progress in genetic engineering offers significant options for further improvement. Antibodies have been approved for the treatment and prophylaxis of few common bacterial infections. Most of the alternative approaches are strain or species specific, as opposed to the broad – spectrum activity of conventional antibiotics. Keywords: Drug resistance, probiotics, antimicrobial peptides, bacteriophage, CRISPR – Cas9

Vala Komal A.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Rh blood group was discovered in 1940 by Karl Landsteiner and A. S weiner. Rh blood group system is one of the most polymorphic and immunogenic System known in human. In the past decade, intense investigation has yield Considerable knowledge of the molecular background of the system a related Protein the Rh glycoprotein is essential for assembly of the Rh protein complex In the erythrocyte membrane and for expression of Rh antigens. The Rh blood Group system is the most polymorphic of the human blood groups. Consisting of at least 45 independent antigens and next to ABO, is the most clinical significant in transfusion medicine. The Rh blood group expression and how this knowledge Impacts on clinical situations that arise through Rh blood group incompatible. The intron-exonboundaries of the RACE gene (21) and the complete nucleotide Sequence of some of the RHD in tandem encompasses 32 kb. The RHD protein is enclosed by RHD. The RH proteins were erythroid specific and confined to Higher Vertebrates. The discovery of sequence related RHAG homologs in Invertebrates. Keywords: Blood group, RH system, ABO Blood group.

Peshivadiya Hepi A.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Fermented foods are among the first processed food product consumed since the development of human civilization. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a large group of closely related bacteria that have similar properties such as lactic acid production, which is an end product of the fermentation. Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make useful products or any technological application that uses biological system, living organisms or derivatives, to make or modify products or processes for specific use. Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the fields of bioengineering and biomedical engineering. Some of the applications were identified in to include biotechnology in food fermentation to enhance properties such as the taste, aroma, texture and nutritional value of food. When used regularly, LAB fermented foods boost the immune system and strengthen the body in the fight against pathogenic bacterial infection, bacteriocins produce by LAB may become a potential drug candidate for replacing antibiotic in order to treat multiple drugs resistance pathogen in the future. The modern extension of food fermentation technology consists of processes designed to obtain particular compounds using microbial metabolism as the chemical machinery. Thus, LAB fermentation is not only of a major economic importance, and the starting food material, but it also promotes human health and increase food production in the world. Keywords: fermentation process, lactic acid bacteria, nutritional value

Paghadar Nirali R.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Oil spill pollution which persist globally in marine environment, in inland waters across the world or in soils where oil is transported. It continues to grow at an alarming rate with increased levels of oil production and transport. Its causes are either accidental or due to operation wherever oil is produced, transported, stored and used on sea or land. Hence, it is almost impossible for marine life to be free from the danger of an oil spill, despite continued international regulations. Large plots of land have been permanently affected by its spillage. This ultimately affects the entire food chain, and warrants concern for humanity. Oil spills have many adverse effects on the environment. However, efforts for spill containment and recovery are considered to be only moderately effective. Most often, spilled oil strands on the shoreline and requires clean-up efforts, though care is needed to minimize additional harm that can slow overall recovery. Keywords: Oil spill, Marine environment, Microorganisms

Parmar Nisha J.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Multiple drug resistance or multidrug resistance is resistance shown by species of microorganism towards multiple antimicrobial drugs. Large amount of antibiotics used for human therapy, as well as for farm animals and even for fish in Aquaculture, resulted in the selection of pathogenic bacteria resist to multiple drugs. Multidrug resistance in bacteria may be generated by one of two mechanisms; First, these bacteria may accumulate multiple genes, each coding for resistance to a single drug within a single cell. This accumulation occurs typically on resistance plasmid. Second, multidrug resistance may also occur by the increased expression of genes that code for multidrug efflux pumps, extruding a wide range of drugs. The content included are: What is multidrug resistance, multidrug resistance caused altered physiological states, our current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in both types of resistance, sources of the resistance genes, common multiple drug resistant organisms and some future issues. Keywords: Drug resistance, Multidrug resistance

Makdiya Priya J.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

The microorganisms which are present in soil such as bacteria, fungi, protozoa, algae has efficiency to degrade oil. Actinomycetes have varying capacity to degrade the hydrocarbon. Biotechnology is defined as the set of scientific techniques that utilize living organism or the part of organisms to make modified or improve product. Oil spill effect the living beings in the sea and make them vulnerable to risk oil spill effect land and water. This poses a serious threat to our environment as these hydrocarbon components are toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic to both aquatic and terrestrial environment. The traditional physiochemical methods employed for clean up are laborious, expensive and also do not completely remove the oil contaminants. The popular effective, safe and economic alternative in today’s world is bioremediation which uses biological organisms to detoxify environmental contaminants into harmful forms. Bioremediation by oil eating microbes are acknowledged to be the most eco-friendly and sustainable technology in the present world. Thus, this paper briefly reviews of the various oil eating microbes existing today to remediate the remains of crude oil contaminants in the environment. Keywords: Microorganism, Oil Spill, Environment, Bioremediation

Talaviya Jinal P.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Before we dive into our first piece of dark chocolate, let's get clear on some gut specifics. Our gut’s micro biome is made up of trillions of tiny microbes, or the bacteria living in our gut. The good bacteria is called probiotics. Probiotics keep us feeling healthy, fight off any bad bacteria that can make us sick, help move food and aid in digestion, produce vitamins, and boost immunity. Probiotics get their gut-working energy from eating the strong-guy fibers called prebiotics. Prebiotics are a type of inulin soluble fiber that the body can’t digest. The fiber travels all the way through the gut until they meet their probiotic friends. When prebiotics and probiotics meet, the probiotics use the prebiotics as food and get the energy to get their jobs done right.Plus when we eat foods packed with healthy antioxidants like dark chocolate, cranberries, or blackberries, they work together with prebiotics and probiotics to decrease our gut’s inflammation. This leads to a whole bunch of positive, anti-inflammatory health benefits like reduced stress, boosted immunity, and detoxification in the body.That healthy microbiome is a powerful part of our body that promotes not only gut health but can affect these other parts of our body. Keywords: Microbiome, Probiotic, prebiotic, Inflammation, fibers

Tejvani Nayna T.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Vaccination is a method of giving antigen to stimulate the immune response through active immunigetion. The new approaches is reverse vaccinology is the process of antigen discovery starting from genome information. From its first application to Neisseria meningitides group B, this approach is now accepted as a successful method of vaccine discovery, as it can be. Exploited to develop vaccines against many types of pathogens. Current reverse vaccinology approaches include comparative in silico analyses of multiple genome sequences in order to identify conserved antigens within a heterogeneous pathogen population and identification of antigens that are unique to pathogenic isolates but not present in commensal strains. In addition, transcriptomic and proteomic data sets are integrated into a selection process that yields a short list of candidate antigens to be tested in animal models, thus reducing the costs and time of downstream analyses. In this chapter, we will review the past and present applications of reverse vaccinology and describe the advantages, challenges and opportunities for this evolving discipline in the broader context of vaccine development. Keywords: Vaccine, Antigen, Immune response, Pathogen, epidemiology

Lakhlani Manthan. J.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Hydroponics is a subject of HYDROCULTURE, which is a method of growing plants without soil by using mineral nutrients in water solvents. TERRESTRIAL PLANTS may be grown with only their roots exposed to the mineral solutions, or roots may be supported by an inert medium, such as pertile or gravels. The nutrients used in hydroponic systems can come from an array of different sources; these can include by-product of fish waste or purchased chemical fertilizers. This technique is done on the simple work form and can be done at any place having sufficient water present. The nutrients are added to the water and pH is maintain to grow high quality plant and crops. In this method the flow of water is made continues and the plants get nutrients from the water and grow at high quality as such performed. This technique is advanced technique because the agricultural land are getting lower day by day, and this technique will give new form of farming without the use of land. This technique was first performed by FRANCIS BACON and gave information about it in the book called “A NATURAL HISTORY”. Keywords: Hydroponic, Farming, Hydroculture

Bhayani Kashyap K.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

We conducted an in-depth characterization of the Nipah virus (NiV) isolate previously obtained from a Pteropus lylei bat in Cambodia in 2003 (CSUR381). By doing full-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses it’s confirmed CSUR381 is part of the NiV-Malaysia genotype. In vitro studies revealed similar cell permissiveness and replication of CSUR381 (compared with 2 other NiV isolates) in both bat and human cell lines. Sequence alignments indicated conservation of the ephrin-B2 and ephrin-B3 receptor binding sites, the glycosylation site on the G attachment protein, as well as the editing site in phosphoprotein, suggesting production of non-structural proteins V and W, known to counteract the host innate immunity. In the hamster animal model, CSUR381 induced lethal infections. Altogether, these data suggest that the Cambodia bat-derived NiV isolate has high pathogenic potential and, thus, provide insight for further studies and better risk assessment for future NiV outbreaks in Southeast Asia. Keywords: Nipah virus, Emerging infection, Pteropus bats, fruit bats, sequencing, Pathogenicity, CSUR381, phosphoprotein, Pteropus lylei.

Ranpariya Utsavi

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Antibiotic Resistance is not a problem of the future; it already has major consequence for people around the globe. There are many actions that can be taken by different levels to mitigate the effects of antibiotic resistance. The Impact of Antibiotic Resistance on Economic growth – Poverty is strongly linked to the achievement of many of the Sustainable Development. Inequality – Health is highly affected by antimicrobial resistance risks furthering inequalities within societies. Food – Food Production - Environment on Effect of Antibiotic resistance in animals threatens the sustainability of food production, the livelihood of farmers and therefore food security as well as food safety, and indirectly harms economic growth. Work on antibiotic resistance should become an essential element in the work towards sustainable food production system and resilient agricultural practices. Antibiotics and resistant bacteria enter the environment along the supply chain from manufacturer to the end user, both in human and animal consumption. Antibiotics in microbial ecosystems. Clean water and appropriate sanitation are major drivers of change and reduce the spread of pathogens to human and animals. Because of its urgency, antibiotic resistant should receive special attention on the national and global levels as a system failure both in healthcare and agriculture. Keywords: Ecosystem, Sustainable Economic Growth, Poverty, Health, Agriculture, Environment

Makwana Hiral R.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Biofuels are energy sources which has origin from living organisms. Biofuels are the element which offers us the opportunity to give back to the environment by allowing us to pursue an alternative fuel that allows us to decrease our dependence on fossil based fuels. Biofuels are abundantly available, environmentally friendly, renewable and sustainable. The definitions of biofuel implicate that a biofuel feedstock is also a biofuel, and can be converted to other types of biofuel, and can be converted to other types of biofuels through proper technologies. Biofuels can be classified into three groups: first-generation biofuels, second-generation biofuels and third-generation biofuels. First generation biofuels are made largely from edible sugars and starches. Second generation biofuels are made from no edible plant materials. Third generation biofuels are made from algae and microbes. The biofuels can be in the form of solid (e.g. solid biomass, biochar), liquid (e.g. bioethanol, biodiesel), or gaseous (e.g. biogas). Biomass can replace most of our gasoline needs in 25 years, while creating a huge economic boom cycle and a cheaper, cleaner fuel for consumers. Bioethanol is a form of renewable energy that can be produced from agricultural feed stocks. Biodiesel is an eco-friendly, alternative diesel fuel prepared from domestic renewable resources i.e. vegetable oils. Keywords: Biofuel, Biomass, Bioethanol, Biodiesel, Biogas.

Bhimani Nidhi N.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

HIV is come from genus Retroviridae. Lentivirus, which literally means slow virus, it take a such a long time to develop adverse effects in the body. This virus attacks the immune system. There are two strains – HIV 1 and HIV 2. These contain RNA, as a genetic material. The outer layer of the HIV virus cell is covered in coat proteins,which can bind to certain WBCs. The virus infects and destroys the CD4 lymphocytes which are critical to the body’s immune response. HIV is 120nm in diameter. The shape of HIV is icosahedral symmetry. HIV have a nucleocapsid. In nucleocapsid outer matrix protein, major capsid protein, nuclear protein is present .diploid RNA with several copies of reverse transcriptase. HIV replication is as following steps like; Attachment, Penetration, Uncoating, Revers transcription, Integration, Replication, Assembly and Release.HIV infection spread through the body like Liver, Bone marrow, within the inflammatory cells of the infection(T cell).HIV infections is occurs in four stages. Stage-1 is primary stage. Stage-2 is asymptomatic stage. Stage-3 symptomatic stage and stage-4 HIV to AIDS. The sharing used drugs needles, pregnancy-from mother to child, tattoos /body piercing if equipment is not clean through this activity HIV is spread. Avoid shaking hands, hugging, insect bites, donating blood for avoid the spreading of HIV. Antiviral drugs for HIV is nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitoes,integrase inhibitors, and protease inhibitiors.

Sindhal Raj

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

The war on cancer has failed especially for lung cancer. Lung cancer arises after a series of morphological changes. Chronic cellular stressors that cause malignancy are chronic inflammations, exposure to carcinogens, reproductive hormones, western diet, aging radiation, immune system dysfunction, germ line changes &random chronic stress. Treatment Approaches to Lung Cancer Based on Complexity Theory. Successful treatment must address tumor heterogeneity. Treatment should halt and optimally act to reverse the chronic stressors. Moving cancer networks into less lethal states may be useful. Targeting chaos may be useful. Thoracic tumors are a leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality. In recent years, developments in oncologic treatments for these tumors have ushered in an era of targeted therapy, and, in many cases, these novel treatments have replaced conventional strategies to become standard therapeutic options, particularly in those with lung cancer. Targeted medical therapies for lung cancer now include angiogenesis inhibitors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and immunotherapeutic agents.

Raychadda Dhruvi J.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Modern drug discovery is thus usually a capital-intensive process that involves large investments by pharmaceutical industry corporations as well as national governments (who provide grants and loan guarantees). Despite advances in technology and understanding of biological systems, drug discovery is still a lengthy, "expensive, difficult, and inefficient process" with low rate of new therapeutic discovery. In 2010, the research and development cost of each new molecular entity was about US$1.8 billion. In the 21st century, basic discovery research is funded primarily by governments and by philanthropic organizations, while late-stage development is funded primarily by pharmaceutical companies or venture capitalists. To be allowed to come to market, drugs must undergo several successful phases of clinical trials, and pass through a new drug approval process, called the New Drug Application in the United States. Discovering drugs that may be a commercial success, or a public health success, involves a complex interaction between investors, industry, academia, patent laws, regulatory exclusivity, the need to balance secrecy with communication. Meanwhile, for disorders whose rarity means that no large commercial success or public health effect can be expected, the orphan drug funding process ensures that people who experience those disorders can have some hope of pharmacotherapeutic advances.

Jalpa R. Maghodiya1, H.P. Gajera2, Samir Anuj3, Kishan H. Sodha4, V.V. Umrania4

M.V.M. Science & Home Science College Rajkot & Department of Biotechnology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh.

Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology drastically changed the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent various diseases in all aspects of human life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most vital and mesmerizing nanomaterials amongst several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in biomedical applications. AgNPs play an important role in nanoscience and nanotechnology, mainly in nanomedicine. Although several noble metals have been used for various purposes, AgNPs have been focused on potential applications in cancer diagnosis and therapySilver nanoparticles are nanoparticles of silver of between 1 nm and 100 nm in size.While frequently described as being 'silver' some are composed of a large percentage of silver oxide due to their large ratio of surface to bulk silver atoms. Plentiful shapes of nanoparticles can be constructed depending on the tender at hand. Commonly used silver nanoparticles are spherical, but diamond, octagonal, and thin sheets are also popular. Their extremely large surface area permits the synchronization of a vast number of ligands. The properties of silver nanoparticles applicable to human treatments are under investigation in laboratory and animal studies, assessing potential efficacy, toxicity, and costs.

Dr. Nimita G. Umretiya

Research Fellow, Director of research, Navasari Agricultural University, Navasari.

Groundnut is one of the principal economic crops of the world and rich source of oil, protein, carbohydrates, minerals, fiber and vitamins. Proteomic analysis reveals the translational products of gene expression during flowering stage. Profiles of total proteins isolated from different stages (Bud, Flower and Peg) cultivar GJG-22, were studied using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis by trichloroacetic Acid/Acetone precipitation method. Platinum master software was used for spots identification. Protein revealed that total 9193 protein spots with the pH range 4 - 7 and 23-312 kDa range recorded. Out of 9193 spots, maximum 3413 spots were found in pH range 6 - 7 in groundnut samples. Proteomic analysis reveals the translational products of gene expression of plant during flowering stage. Our analysis of proteome data provided useful information about the mechanism controlling various flower developmental stages. Out of these spots apart from differentially expressed spots covers large intensity and based on these many spots up and down regulated at bud, flower and peg stages of groundnut.

Dharmesh Sherathia1 & V. J. Jadeja2

College of Computer Science &information technology, Junagadh1& Shree M and N Virani Science College, Rajkot2

In last several decades the properties of soil are damaged due to modern agricultural practices. Synthetic fertilizers damaged the natural microbial flora of soil which was maintaining the fertility of the soil. In present study we were characterize the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, isolated from the rhizospheric area of wheat (Triticum aestivumL.) of Saurastra region of Gujarat, India. All the isolates were screened for plant growth promoting trait to utilize them for the sustainable agriculture. Total thirty-four organisms were purifiedfrom the three different ecological regions (Dhandhusar, Gir-gadhada, Gingani) of Saurashtra region. Among the 34 bacterial isolates twenty-eight were able to produce indole-3- acetic acid in tryptophan supplemented medium; twenty were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and zinc in vitro. PE-1was found to produce high amount of IAA i.e. 120.74µg/ml, ME-1 solubilize maximum inorganic phosphate (635 µgml-1) followed by GE-15(603 µgml-1), SE-6 gives 25mm zone on ZnO2 medium around colony. Present study indicates the potentiality of PGPR that can be utilize as a biofertilizer for better enhancement of productivity and health of wheat crop. Keywords: Rhizobacteria, Wheat, IAA, Phosphate

Darshan T. Dharajiya1, Y. Ravindrababu2, Kapil K. Tiwari3, Karen P. Pachchigar4, Sumeet N. Jani5, S. R. Vyas6

1Research Associate, Bio Science Research Centre (BSRC), Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University (SDAU), Sardarkrushinagar – 385506, Gujarat, India. 2Retd. Research Scientist,Pulses Research Station, SDAU, Sardarkrushinagar-385506, Gujarat, India. 3Assistant Research Scientist, BSRC, SDAU, Sardarkrushinagar-385506, Gujarat. 4Assistant Professor, Department of Biotechnology, College of Basic Science and Humanities (CBSH), Sardarkrushinagar-385506, Gujarat. 5PG Student, Department of Biotechnology, CBSH, Sardarkrushinagar-385506, Gujarat. 6Dean, CBSH, SDAU, Sardarkrushinagar-385506, Gujarat.

Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek, commonly known as green gram or mungbean, is a vital crop grown throughout the world. Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMV) is a plant pathogenic virus which is transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). The MYMV was given special attention because of severity and ability to cause yield loss up to 85%, which is spreading faster towards newer areas. In the present study, thirty seven mungbean genotypes with different MYMV disease reactions were used for the validation of RGA, SCAR and RAPD markers. In marker validation, both of the RGA markers viz., VMYR1 and CRY 1 reported to be linked with YMD resistance in black gram failed to give polymorphism between resistant and susceptible genotypes of mungbean. However, a SCAR marker, MYMVR-583583 was found to be tightly linked with MYMV resistance gene and three RAPD markers viz., OPP 07895, OPBB 05260 and OPS 07900 showed partially linkage with MYMV resistance gene in mungbean. After screening under field condition two genotypes namely, Meha and IPM 0205-7 were found to be highly resistant against MYMV which was confirmed by linked markers and can be used to develop a MYMV resistant variety.

Kuldeep Malam

College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University

A field experiment entitled " RESPONSE OF WHEAT (Triticum aestivumL.) ON N, P AND K NANO FERTILIZERS" was carried out during rabi season on calcareous clayey soil at Junagadh. The experiment comprising 8 treatments was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. The results revealed that 20% of RDF through nano fertilizers + biofertilizers, being statistically equivalent to 100% RDF enhanced growth parameters viz., plant height, dry matter/plant, CGR and SPAD meter reading, yield attributes viz., number of total tillers/m row length, number of effective tillers/m row length, length of spike, number of spikelets/spike, number of grains/spike, grain weight/spike, 1000-grain weight and ultimately gave higher grain and straw yields, nutrient content and uptake by straw, post harvest nutrient status of soil. The quality parameters viz., protein content, gluten content and fibre content, nutrient content in grain and soil microbial population were found superior under the 20% of RDF through nano fertilizers + biofertilizers.On the basis of the results obtained from the present one year investigation, it seems quite logical to conclude that higher grain yield and net returns from wheat (var. GW-366) can be secured by applying nano fertilizers (12-12-12 N-P2O5-K2O kg/ha as basal and 12-0-0 N-P2O5-K2O kg/ha at 25 DAS) and biofertilizers (Azotobacter, PSB and KMB each at 1.2 L/ha), which was equivalent to 100% RDF, that saved 80% fertilizers in medium black calcareous clayey soil of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone. Keywords: Nano fertilizers, RDF, Biofertilizers

Dipali Pandya 1 & Hiral Pathak2

Om College of Science, Junagadh & Alpha vidhya sankul &

Probiotics are live nonpathogenic microorganisms administered to improve microbial balance, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. They consist of lactic acid bacteria, and are regulated as dietary supplements and foods. Probiotics exert their beneficialeffects through various mechanisms, including lowering intestinal pH, decreasingcolonization and invasion by pathogenic organisms, and modifying the host immuneresponse. The strongest evidence for the clinical effectiveness of probiotics has beenin the treatment of acute diarrhea. There is no consensus about theminimum number of microorganisms that must be ingested to obtain a beneficialeffect; however, a probiotic should typically contain several billion microorganisms toincrease the chance that adequate gut colonization will occur. Probiotics are generallyconsidered safe and well tolerated. Probioticproduct is more beneficial for the human host because it give some kind of resistanceto pathogenic organism. Probiotic chocolate may actually be superior to other formsof probiotic foods. In fact, chocolate helps the probiotics survive digestion andexposure to stomach acids, ensuring that the probiotics can successfully reach thelower intestines. This means that consuming probiotic chocolate guarantees that yourbody will receive just about all of the probiotics initially present beforeeating.Another key benefit for choosing probiotic chocolate is that Probiotics promotea stronger immune system and keep your intestines balanced.

Batak Imran M.1, Chavada Nikul B.
Departmentof Life Science –BKNMUniversity, Junagadh&ShreeMahila Arts and Science College-Simar,Kidivav

Limnology is the science of inland water properties, it is also related to the ecology and environmental science of is a fresh water science in which includes physico-chemical and biological properties. Limnology study on River water gives idea about physical and chemical properties of water with their relationship in ecosystem. water ecosytem is maintain by mainaly two factor frist Abiotic factor in which we include the physical and chemical properties of water, second biotic factor like diversity of flora and fauna this both factors make ecosystem healthy if a single parameter will fluctuated it may cause positive or negative impact on the biodiversity of water. In present study we selecte Meghal River which passing near to Simar village, our study focus on basic life of water ecosystem like planktons diversity and intencity of Microbial concentration. Phytoplankton is the main producers of an aquatic ecosystem which control the biological productivity. Where microorganisms play important role in degrade complex organic compound to simple compound.its maintain biogeochemical cycle in water body. In present study we study impact of Physicochemical Parameters on plankton diversity with microbial concentration during Pre, Middle and post winter season 2018-19 at Meghal River near to Simar Village, Gir-Somnath Keywords: Limnology, Wetland, Physico-chemical Analysis.

Jani Charmi Pareshkumar
College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University

The intensive chemical agriculture that has been followed after successful green revolution in our country is causing heavy pollution of our soil, food, drinking water and air. The harmful chemicals are ingested into the body when we eat food grown under these conditions. The answer to our problems lies in Agnihotra Organic Farming. Agni means fire, Hotra means healing. It’s written in the Vedas that “HEAL THE ATMOSPHERE AND IT WILL HEAL YOU”. The most significant aspect of Agnihotra is that it combines the energies of five elements sun, space, air, water and earth to produce subtle changes in the living organisms and helps to restore the bio-rhythm. Agnihotra can be referred as a non-convectional approach as it reduces microbial count and toxic gases in air and improve atmospheric quality. It increases plant growth, yield and quality parameter. Application of Agnihotra ash and biosol improve soil quality by increasing beneficial soil microorganism. It lowers the incidence of pest and diseases as well as heals the atmosphere by preventing it from minimizing the use of chemical fertilizer which are toxic for human, plant and livestock health. Agnihotra ash also work to purify water and make it suitable for agricultural use. So perform Agnihotra daily with any good organic practice will improve the effect of that practice on farm. Keywords: Agnihotra, Agnihotra ash, Biosol

KarethaPayal & Hun Jalpa

Department of Lifesciences, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh MehtaUniversity, Khadiya-380001 Junagadh,

Chicken feathers are waste products of poultry industry. Chicken feather meal has high percentage of protein and nitrogen. A lot of waste feathers in billions of tons were generated each year by poultry farm units, and it was a great solid waste problems. Chicken method meal has 12% fat content, which could be used as a nonfood feedstock to make biodiesel. Another advantage of this process, is there won’t be lack of chicken- feed because the taken from the central quill part. Fossil fuels are degrade quickly; there is need to search an alternative fuel to the requirements of demand around the world. Biodiesel promise the best option to overcome from this one to the best available resources that have forefront recently.Although the acid value and kinematic viscosity range of the biodiesel was little higher than the specifications of ASTM and european biodiesel standards, it would be possible to optimize the conditions in terms of yield and purity. However, biodiesel can blend with diesel at 20% with 80% of diesel to meet the current needs. It will become a major fuel resource in near future. Key Word: Chicken feather, biodiesel, fat content

NimishaV. Hirani1 & MitalV. Solanki 2

Junagadh Agriculture University, Ph. D in 3rd semester PMBB1 and Biochemistry2

Dioecy offers opportunities to explore separately the male and female programmes giving an insight to the evolutionary, developmental and molecular processes leading to separate mechanisms for sex expression. Mechanisms controlling sex can either be genetic or epigenetic. Plant hormones too influence sex expression. Advances in our understanding of sex determination has been addressed both by conventional as well as molecular approaches. Using conventional techniques mainly cytogenetics, sex chromosomes in some dioecious plants have been identified and characterized. Surprisingly, the presence of well-defined sex chromosomes was found in only few species. Some sex linked genes have also been identified and characterized using molecular approaches but none of these genes have a direct link to sex determination. Molecular markers have been employed to resolve the enigma associated with dioecism to a certain extent. Its application in plant breeding is immensely beneficial. Positively, it would be beneficial for validation of sex prior their sex expression at larger perspectives. The mode of sex determination among dioecious plants vis-a-vis summarizes the works related to gender specific markers generated using male and female plants from agriculturally important dioecious crops.

Dave Chandani C.

College of Computer, Science & Information Technology - Junagadh

One of the most recent outcomes of molecular microbiology efforts to understand bacterial behavior is the discovery of a wide range of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems that are tightly controling bacterial persistence. Many drugs useful in the prime of antibiotic era are becoming less effective owing to mutations in the microorganisms. Post antibiotic era, scientists have warned after finding bacteria resistant to drugs used when all other treatments have killed bacteria becoming completely resistant to treatment also know as the antibiotic apocalypse. Here two types of vaccines like prophylactic vaccines, therapeutic vaccines introduce antigens associated with an illness. Here we discuss about microbial tivity was assessed against common pathogen. Keywords: Nanotechnology, Copper Nanoparticles, Green synthesis, Dynamic Light Scattering

Mokariya Lakhan Karshanbhai

College of Agriculture, Agricultural University Junagadh

Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolour (L.) Moench) Is Similar To Grain Sorghum Except For Its Juice-Rich Sweet Stalk And It Is Often Taller (Up To 4 Meters). It Can Be Grown Successfully In Dry Land Growing Areas. It Is Known As The Sugarcane Of The Desert, A "Smart" Crop And "Camel Among Crops". Ss Extracts Only One Seventh Of The Water That Is Used Up By Sugarcane. Ss Provides Grain For Human Consumption And Stover For Fodder And It Is Also Used For Industrial Biofuel Production. It Is Not Often That All Three (Food, Fodder And Fuel) Requirements Can Be Provided By One Crop. It Has More Total Sugars In The Juice Than Sugarcane. Also, Ss-Based Ethanol Is Sulfur-Free And Cleaner Than Molasses-Based Ethanol, When Mixed With Gasoline. Ss Is Definitely Profitable And Comparison To Competing Crops Like Sole Maize And Sugarcane, The Net Returns Are Marginally Better For Ss In A Few Years. It Can Play A Significant Role In Addressing The Growing Need For Renewable Energy To Displace Fossil Fuel-Based Energy Resources. Also It Gives By-Product Like Bagasse, Spent Wash Etc. Used As Fodder, Fuel, Gives External Income. Ss Can Be Used As A Best Alternative For Sugarcane For Syrup And Ethanol Making. Truly, Sweet Sorghum Is A Solution To The Food-Versus-Fuel Issue. Keywords: Sweet Sorghum, Food, Fodder, Fuel

Sumeet Jani1, *Jaykishan Songara2 , Karen Pachchigar3 ,YogeshkumarR.Patel4, Gaurav S.Dave5, Darshan Dharajiya6, Sudhansu vyas7
1Department of Biotechnology, 2Department of Microbiology and 3Department of Biochemistry
College of Basic Science & Humanities, SardarkrushinagarDantiwadaAgricultural University,

Nanotechnology Is An Emerging Field Of Science Which Makes A Mark In Research Field Day By Day And May Impact In All Sphere Of Human Life. Nowadaysnanoparticles Formulation By Green Routemay Prove To Be Eco-Friendly And Beneficialfor Farmers, And Entire Agro Industry.Nanoparticles (Nps) Possess Unique Physio-Chemical, Physiochemical, Electrical And Optical Properties. Thus, Nps Can Be Applied In Catalysis, Cosmetics, Bio Sensing And Antimicrobial Application. By Using Plant Extract Under Specificexperimental Condition Eco-Friendly Copper Nanoparticles Can Be Synthesized.Synthesis Of Copper Nanoparticles Was Carried Out With Pomegranate Leaves Extract And Copper Sulphate By Green Approach. The Synthesis Of Copper Nanoparticles Was Monitored By Color Change From Blue To Reddish Brown. The Synthesized Copper Nanoparticles Werecharacterized By Ftir And Dynamic Light Scattering Analysis (Hydrodynamic Size And Zeta Potential). Antimicrobial Ac

Gadhvi Megha S.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology
Endophytic bacteria have been found in virtually every plant studied, where they colonize the internal tissues of their host plant and can form a range of different relationships including symbiotic, mutualistic, and commensalistic and trophobiotic. Most endophytes appear to originate from the rhizosphere or phyllosphere; however, some may be transmitted through the seed. Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth and yield and can act as biocontrol agents. Endophytes can also be beneficial to their host by producing a range of natural products that could be harnessed for potential use in medicine, agriculture or industry. In addition, it has been shown that they have the potential to remove soil contaminants by enhancing phytoremediation and may play a role in soil fertility through nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization and sequestering iron. They can also modulating level of phytohormone like cytokinins, gibberellines, indole acetic acid (IAA) and ethylene. There is increasing interest in developing the potential biotechnological applications of endophytes for improving phytoremediation and the sustainable production of nonfood crops for biomass and biofuel production as well as antibiotic, lytic enzymes and siderophore production. Keywords: Endophytes, phytoremediation, nitrogen fixation, phytohormone, Groundnut Seed

Mahida Anila Y. & Gadhvi Megha S.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Autophagy is an ancient pathway in which subcellular membranes undergo dynamic morphological change that leads to the degradation of cellular proteins and cytoplasmic organells within the lysosome or vacuole. Autophagy has a much broader role in biology, including organelle remodelling, protein and organelle quality control, prevention of genotoxic stress, tumor suppression, pathogen elimination, regulation of immunity and inflammation, maternal DNA inheritance, metabolism, and cellular survival. This mechanism is inducing under various conditions of cellular stress, which protect cell and help in survival when nutrient is depleted and respond to various cytotoxic damage. Autophagy is controlled by a gene and cascade of proteins and protein complexes, each regulating a distinct stage of autophagosome initiation and formation. Several vertebrate genes were cloned that shared a high degree of sequence homology with essential yeast autophagy genes, including human ATG5, human ATG12. Disrupted autophagy has been linked to Parkinson’s disease, type 2 diabetes and other disorders that appear in the elderly. Mutations in autophagy genes can cause genetic disease. Disturbances in the autophagic machinery have also been linked to cancer. Intense research is now ongoing to develop drugs that can target autophagy in various diseases. Keywords: Autophagy, Autophagosome, Tumor suppression, ATG5

Jani Shraddha& Solanki Viral

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Improvement of the quality and efficiency of healthcare in medicine, both at home and in hospital, is becoming more and more important for patients and society at large. As many technologies (micro technologies, telecommunication, low-power design, new textiles, and flexible sensors) are now available, new user-friendly devices can be developed to enhance the comfort and security of the patient. As clothes and textiles are in direct contact with about 90% of the skin surface, smart sensors and smart clothes with noninvasive sensors are an attractive solution for home-based and ambulatory health monitoring. Moreover, wearable devices or smart homes with exosensors are also potential solutions. All these systems can provide a safe and comfortable environment for home healthcare, illness prevention, and citizen medicine. Keywords: Smart sensor, Telecommunication cloth, Device, Healthcare

Vadar Rajee N.1& Fadau priya J.2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Antibiotic resistance is arguably the biggest current threat to global health. An increasing number of infections are becoming harder to treate. The therapeutic use of bacteriophages, that infect and kill bacteria and without such negative side effects as toxicity. Bacteriophages, or phages, are viruses that infect bacteria. Bacteriophages perform lytic cycle. Most of lytic phages use two kinds of protein to destroy their host cell. In lysogenic cycle phages genome remains dormant as a prophage replicates with it’s host. Lysogeny can be beneficial to bacteria as they can encode for antibiotic resistance. For this reason, only lytic phages should be used for bacteriophage therapy, not lysogeny cycle. Phages are the only therapeutic agent that regulates itself at the sites of infection and decays when the infectious bacteria have been killed. Phage can’t be expected to replace antibiotic agent in our medical but can be used where antibiotic agents fail. Some bacteria develope phage resistance and different strains of bacteria may differ Phage susceptibility. So, in this use of mixture of bacteriophage is used is known as “Phage cocktails”. Keywords: Bacteriophages, Antibiotic resistance, Bacteriophage therapy, Phage cocktails

Ram Sheetalben Devabhai

Life Science Department, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Maheta University Junagadh

"The climate change phenomenon refers to seasonal changes over a long time with respect to the growing accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere”. Global temperature of earth increase 1? in 19th century and now a days it reach at 1.5?. These all things directly affect on arctic ice mealting, sea level rise, would result flooding of coastal cities and small island and countries will vanish from the face of earth, many animals, birds and humans lose their habitats mostly staff to death and go extinct, urban population will be exposed to severe water shortage, serious food shortage around this world. Global temperature increase due to green house gases like CO2, water vapor, methane, nitrous oxide, chloro fluro carbons. Concentration of CO2 are increase due to use of fossil fuel, and methane due to biogas plant. Countries around the world singed up to the paris agreement. The paris agreement aims to keep global warming below 2? ,to stop the planet getting warmer. To prevent the climate change we need to reduce the use of fossil fuels, and increase the share of renewable energy like wind and low carbon sources. To action we can take to reduce our carbon foot print. Like inversting in green technologies can also reduce costs and create jobs. "Climate action is everyone's responsibility: government, businessman, communities, individuals."

Patel Isha V.& Jarsaniya Arju P.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Human beings experience and feel the music for joy and happiness. Even animals also feel the sound. Recently, the concept of musical vibrations of various ragas of Indian Hindustani and Carnatic music have been evaluated for its impact on the growth of the microorganisms and its metabolite production. In this context, the present study was framed out to screen the effect of music ranging from 60-90 decibels on marine Brevibacterium spp. that produce yellow pigment. The given study showed that the sound frequency ranging from 600-1000Hz has significant effect on growth and pigment production of Brevibacterium spp. The biomass was found to be increased three times and pigment produced greater when compared to untreated sample.Due to musical vibrations Brevibacterium spp. Produced more amount of growth and pigment production so it can be widely used in industrial purposes. Keywords: Sonic stimulation, Music, Growth, Pigment and Brevibacterium spp.

Khyati B. Vanra 1& Nitika S. Chorvada 2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

“Superbug” is a term used to describe strain of bacteria that are resistant to the majority of antibiotics commonly used today. Resistance bacteria that cause pneumonia, urinary tract infections and just a few of the dangers we now face. Antibiotic resistance is a naturally occurring phenomenon that can be slowed, but not stopped. Over time bacteria adapt to the drugs that are designed to kill them and change to ensure their survival. This makes previously standard treatments for bacterial infections less effective, and in some cases, ineffective. The world is in the midest of a different kind of public health emergency, one that is just as dramatic but not as visible. Grabbing “superbugs”, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) does not cause much public alarm. But AMR has the potential to be even more deadly than cancer, to kill as many as 10 million people a year and, according to a recent review undertaken by the United Kingdom, to cost the world economy as much as $ 100 trillion annually. For stop spread the superbug wash your hands often with soap and do not share personal items such as towels or razors. But in some cases, infection with a superbug can lead to sever disability and death. Some superbugs have developed multi-drug resistance. First line treatments we are no longer effective against them. Keywords: Antibiotic, Multi-drug resistance, Antimicrobial resistance (AMR)

Nidhi Vaghani 1 & Heta Devani 2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology &

Gold was produced by a bacteria that, according to researchers, can survive in extreme toxic environments and create 24-karat gold nuggets. Pure gold. Kashefi and Brown are the ones who have created this compact laboratory that uses the bacteria Cupriavidus metallidurans to turn gold chloride—a toxic chemical liquid you can find in nature—into 99.9% pure gold. According to Kashefi, they are doing "microbial alchemy" by "something that has no value into a solid [in fact, it the toxic material they use does cost money]. Less than gold, but still plenty, precious metal that's valuable. "The bacteria is incredibly resistant to this toxic element. The Great Work of the Metal Lover—holds the bacteria as they feed it the gold chloride. In about a week, the bacteria does its job, processing all that junk into the precious metal—a process they believe happens regularly in nature. So basically, Cupriavidus metallidurans can eat toxins and poop out gold nuggets. Keywords: Cupriavidus metallidurans, microbial alchemy, gold nuggets, gold chloride

Barad Bhargavee B 1.& Daki Laxmi P2

. Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

In the past centuries, the farmers were eager in the usage of chemical fertilizers as it yielded great number of crops. But eventually, they realized that chemical fertilizers affects the soil fertility and kills the beneficial microbes which enhances the growth of the crops. The major issue they faced using chemical fertilizers not only affected the soil but human beings as well. To overcome this problem faced by farmers, Biofertilizers came as the solution. It is an ecofriendly method both to environment and farmers. The Biofertilizer and biological waste are used to replace the usage of chemical fertilizers as it does not contain any toxic substance and makes the soil enriched. Use of such natural products like biofertilizers in crop cultivation will help in safeguarding the soil health and also the quality of crop products. Solid State Fermentation has been defined as a fermentation process which is used in cultivation of microorganisms under controlled conditions in the absence or near absence of free water. It is a potential technology that is used in the production of microbial products such as feed, fuel, food, chemical and pharmaceutical products. Solid substrate generally provides a good environment to the microbial flora containing bacteria, fungi and yeast. The present study is aimed at producing Biofertilizers from Agro - wastes using Solid State Fermentation. Keywords: Chemical Fertilizers, Bio Fertilizers, Microbial Product – wastes and solid state Fermentation.

Bariya Priya Sarmanbhai

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Wastewater treatment has traditionally been an energy intensive process, consuming between 950 and 2850kj/m 3 of wastewater treated, Wastewater contains 9.3 times more energy than is used to treat an equivalent volume, thus creating the desire to harness this energy though the use of a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC). MFC oxidize organic substrates, allowing simultaneous wastewater treatment and electricity generation. MFC is very important instrument because it allow the microorganism as electron accepter or donor. MFC is give a new approach for wastewater treatment and electricity generation by the use of microorganisms. This is possible because wastewater contains high amount of COD, so the treatment of wastewater is very important. There by us study the treatment of wastewater like Dairy industry wastewater, Effluents, Food processing wastewater, Sludge wastewater, Pharmaceutical wastewater and different types of metal containing wastewaters can be treated by this techniques. Keywords: Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC), Wastewater, Dairy industry wastewater, Effluents, Food processing wastewater, Sludge wastewater.

Kaneriya Prexa 1 & Gain Sneha2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology &

Enzymes are truly outstanding biological catalysts with the ability to accelerate the rate of chemical reaction up to 1019 times for specific substrates and reaction. New approaches based on amino acid or peptides as characteristic molecular moieties have led to a significant expansion of the field of artificial enzymes or enzymes mimics, catalyzing various reactions with rate increases up to 103. A number of possibilities now exist for the construction of artificial enzymes. These are generally synthetic polymers or oligomers with enzyme-like activities, often called synzymes. This review has basic information about ideal requirement for artificial enzyme and their significance for further development in this field. Keywords: artificial enzymes, synzyme, enzyme mimics, chemzymes, star polymers, catalysts, metalloproteins, peptides, de novo design, chirality.

Solanki Chetaxi Yogeshbhai

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Probiotic are live microorganism intended to provide health benefits when consumed. Generally by improving or restoring the gut flora. Probiotics are considered generally safe to consume. But may cause bacteria-host interections and unwanted side effects in rare cases. A growing Probiotics market has led to the need for stricter requirements for scientific substantiation of putative benefits conferred by microorganisms claimed to be Probiotic although there are numerous claimed benefits marketed towards using consumer Probiotic products. Such has reducing gastrointestinal discomfort. Improving immune health. Relieving constipation or avoiding the common cold such claims are not supported by scientific evidence and are prohibited as deceptive advertising in the United States by the federal trade commission. Probiotic such as antibiotic associated diarrhea in children. Probiotics are under preliminary research to evaluate. If they provide any effect on health. There is no scientific basis for extrapolating an effect from a tested strain to an untested strain. Improvement health through gut flora modulation appears to be directly releated to long term dietary changes. Keywords: Probiotic food, gastrointestinal tract, Gut flora

Solanki Kinjal K.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Development of antimicrobial resistance bacteria occurs due to repeated and improper use of antibiotic by a persons. Antimicrobial resistance is a global problem on the earth. Nowadays 70% microbes caused infection in hospital that’s why resistance initially appeared in hospital. Because of increasing the resistance capacity of microorganism, increasing mortality rate & also increasing the zoonotic diseases and decreasing effectiveness of antibiotics or drugs. A group of pathogens mainly “ESKAPE” responsible for the infections from the hospitals and are known as MDR Bacteria. There are many factors which affects the antimicrobial resistance such as quorum sensing, biofilm, horizontal gene transfer, etc. Through quorum sensing process bacteria communicate with each other by secreting chemical signals. Biofilm also help the organism to increase antimicrobial resistance. Biofilm or group of bacteria plays a major role in host cell defence for establishing chronic or lethal infection. With the help of horizontal gene transfer method, gene which is responsible for the resistance is transfer from donor cell to recipient cell and make them resistance again drugs and antibiotics. At this time many researchers developed the medicine which inhibits the antimicrobial resistance. Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, ESKAPE, Biofilm, MDR Bacteria.

Joshi Aashaka 1 & Megha Suriya 2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Molecular Docking is the computational modelling of the structure of complexes formed by two or more interacting molecules. The goal of molecular docking is the prediction of the three dimensional structures of interest. Docking itself only produces plausible candidate structures. These candidates are ranked using methods such as scoring functions to identify structures that are most likely to occur in nature. The state of heart of various computational aspects of molecular docking based virtual screening of database of small molecules is presented. This review encompasses molecular docking approaches, different search algorithms and the scoring functions used in docking methods and their applications to protein and nucleic acid drug Targets. Limitations of current technologies as well as future prospects are also presented. Keywords: Molecular docking, scoring functions, virtual screening, docking algorithm.

Borakhatariya Bansi H1. & Chandravadiya Bansari B2.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology &

The waste management is necessary for environmental and economic sustainability, but it depends upon socioeconomic, political and environmental factors. Water, food & resource scarcity are increasing major challenges for human in now a days & in future. The increasing demand of nutrients and energy collected by food production, nutrient discharge and fertilization process all this nutrients recovered by bio waste. The collection techniques of waste can be broadly divided into 3 parts: 1) nutrient accumulation, 2) extraction, 3) release. Physicochemical mechanisms, plants and microorganisms (algae and prokaryotes) could be used to accumulate nutrients. Extraction of nutrient is possible through electro dialysis and crystallization while nutrient release can occur via thermo chemical and biochemical treatments. Recovery of nutrients in a concentrated form is desirable because it would allow a wider range of options for eventual reuse with reduced pathogen risk and improved case of transportation. There is need to investigate and develop agriculture application of the recovered nutrient products. The application is that, reduce water and air pollution by redirecting nutrients from waste into recovered nutrients products that provides a long term sustainable supply of nutrients and helps buffer nutrient price rises in the future. Thus, climate friendly technologies such as composting biodegradation and anaerobic decomposition with the generation of non-biodegradable wastes need to be adapted to ensure a sustainable future environment.

Vamja Nensee A1.& Patel Dhruvee R2.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology &

Probiotics are microorganisms, "friendly" or "good" bacteria. Probiotics are essential to prevent illness and improve function. Lacticacid bacteria and Bifidobacteria constitute the major types of colon flora. There are multiple reasons for the renewing of interest in probiotics, Antibiotics, although they have been life saving, have created some new problems as their usage has exponentially risen. It is widely recognized that antibiotics can cause imbalances in the protective flora of the gastrointestinal and vaginal tracts, leading to weakened immune systems and digestive problems. Many more probiotic foods have come on the market, mostly dairy products. The health affirmming effects of probiotics include aiding the digestion of food, manufacturing vitamins B- 12 and K, and supporting our immune systems. They inhibit the action of disease-causing alkaline bacteria by maintaining an acidic environment in the gut. Probiotics can also increase the nutritional value of some foods by augmenting the breakdown and absorption of nutrients. Nutraceuticals and functional foods have become an important tool for consumers to manage their health and wellness,pro-biotics, are a part of this group of products shown to have properties that can modulate gastrointestinal problems and improve general health and well being.There is evidence that the oral consumption of micro-organisms produces a protective effect on the gut ?ora. Keywords: unfermented probiotics, kefir, sauerkraut

Thesiya Bhakti A.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Water pollution is the caused of our undisciplined actions and irresponsibility. Our health is seriously affected by water pollution and we all know about it. The main problem caused by water pollution is that it kills organisms that depend on these water bodies. Dead fish, crabs, birds and sea gulls, dolphins, and many other animals often wind up on beaches, killed by pollutants in their habitats. Pollution disrupts the natural food chain as well. Water is the life essential and it is our responsibility to keep, protect, save, and help prevent our waters from being polluted , we should act as early as now, we should save rivers, seas and oceans, and other bodies of water because we will also bare the burden of this problem. We should not wait for the time until people are competing just to get sufficient, fresh and clean water, the time where clean water is insufficient to the people and animals, and the time where in our sources of water are diminishing or until the time where there are totally no sources of water. And so, let us be responsible and disciplined enough to save, protect and conserve not only sources of water but also our mother nature because our nature provides and helps us in our daily lives. Keywords: Water pollution, health, conserve water bodies

Chaniyara Nirali A1. & Dave Khushi D2.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology &

Although Kanner's initial description of people with ASDs focused mainly on children, Asperger's account included some examples of adults with this condition and further descriptions of cohorts involving adults as well as children began to appear in the mid-1950s to the early 1960s. These earliest account documented the wide variety of possible outcomes for people with ASD. Although many of the people described by many Eisenberg. For example highly dependenft on others for support, around one -third were said to have made at least a moderate social adjustment, despite the lack of any specialist provision or treatment available at the time. In the United Kingdom, Mildred creak described a hundred cases of “childhood psychosis”, the term then often used for children with autism. A minority was rated as having made significant improvements but around one half were permanently institutionalized. These largely descriptive accounts were followed, toward the latter part of the 1960s, by much more systematic studies of outcome that focused particularly on exploring childhood factors associated with prognosis in adult life.

Trambadia Janki D1.& Odedara Shanti L2.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology &

One of the major threats being in society is the rise in number of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) bacteria. It is one of the global problem which is hindering treatment of bacterial infections and making many modern drugs less effective. The genes for antimicrobial resistance are located on plasmids, which are self-replicating and are transmissible between bacteria by conjugation. Novel strategies to combat AMR are required. One could be plasmid caring and anti-plasmid approach can be used to reduce the increasing AMR genes (ARGs). By this we can make bacteria sensitive to antibiotics. The use of curing agents like chemicals, drugs, psychotropic drugs, antibiotics and plant derived compounds. Novel strategies to cure AMR genes include conjugation inhibitors, systems designed around plasmid incompatibility, phages and CRISPR/cas based approaches. Yet this treatment lack in vivo curing presently but could still prove important role in reducing global burden of AMR. Keywords: AMR, Plasmid, Bacteria, Drugs, ARGs

Bhesaniya Dhruvisha K1. & Thummar Riddhi S2.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases and is considered to be the main cause of cognitive impairment in elderly people. The major symptom of AD is progressive dementia that eventually results in dysfunction of daily life. Due to the fact that AD has a long period of incubation before clinical symptoms emerge, the available therapeutic treatments can only improve the symptoms but not delay the progression of AD. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore effective diagnostic approaches to catch and better treat the disease before clinical symptoms appear. Recent research revealed that abnormal expression of certain miRNA could have a crucial role in the pathological process of neurodegenerative disease including AD. Furthermore, given that AD patients show increased level of miRNAs in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, miRNAs are considered promising non-invasive candidates for AD diagnosis and prognosis. Here, we reviewed the current research related to implications of miRNAs during the development of AD, summarized of actively used approaches to identifying potential miRNA biomarkers in body fluids, and discussed the diagnostic potential of microRNAs as biomarkers for AD.

Chothani Jigisha1 & KatharotiyaReni 2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Biodiesel has attracted considerable attention during the past decade as a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel alternative to fossil fuels. It can be obtained from vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible) and from animal fat. Jatropha curcas Linnaeus, a multipurpose plant, contains high amount of oil in its seeds which can be converted to biodiesel. J. curcas is probably the most highly promoted oilseed crop at present in the world. The availability and sustainability of sufficient supplies of less expensive feedstock in the form of vegetable oils, particularly J. curcas and efficient processing technology to biodiesel will be crucial determinants of delivering a competitive biodiesel. Properties of Jatropha biodiesel are comparable to those of fossil diesel and confirm to the American and European standards. Plant, the production of biodiesel from the seed oil and research attempts to improve the technology of converting vegetable oil to biodiesel and the fuel properties of the Jatropha biodiesel. There is also still a dearth of research about the influence of various cultivation-related factors and their interactions and influence on seed yield. Many other areas that need to be researched on Jatropha curcas L. are pointed out in this presentation.

Dadhaniya Dhruvi K1. & Vaghela krupali S2.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology &

There are many situations where human activities have significant effects on the environment. Ozone layer damage is one of them.Ozone is a stratospheric layer that place important role to providing support to human for their Survival. The chlorofluorocarbon and the haloes are potent ozone depletors. One of the main reasons for the widespread concern about depletion of the ozone layer is the anticipated increase in the amounts of ultraviolet radiation received at the surface of the earth and the effect of this on human health and on the environment. The prospects of ozone recovery remain uncertain. In the absence of other changes, stratospheric ozone abundances should rise in the future as the halogen loading falls in response to regulation. However, the future behaviour of ozone will also be affected by the changing atmospheric abundances of methane, nitrous oxide, water vapour, sulphate aerosol, and changing climate. The ultra violet rays emitted from sun are captured by ozone and their by provide a stable antological structure in the biosphere. Human and environmental which increased number of bronchial disease in human. The emissions of chlorofluorocarbons, haloes, and other destructive gases are causing ozone holes to appear in the stratospheric ozone layer.

Thumar Foram D1. & Kher Darshana B2.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Bioterrorism has received a lot of attention in the first decade of this century. Biological agents are considered attractive weapons for bioterrorism as these are easy to obtain, comparatively inexpensive to produce and exhibit widespread fear and panic than the actual potential of physical damage. Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis), the etiologic agent of anthrax is a Gram positive, spore forming, non-motile bacterium. This is supposed to be one of the most potent BW agents because its spores are extremely resistant to natural conditions and can survive for several decades in the environment. B. anthracis spores enter the body through skin lesion (cutaneous anthrax), lungs (pulmonary anthrax), or gastrointestinal route (gastrointestinal anthrax) and germinate, giving rise to the vegetative form. Anthrax is a concern of public health also in many countries where agriculture is the main source of income including India. Anthrax has been associated with human history for a very long time.B.anthracisendospore, in partical, are highly resilient, surviving extremes of temperature, low nutrient environments, and harsh chemical treatment over decades or centuries. The endospore is a dehydrated cell with thick wall and additional layer that form inside the cell membrane. It can remain inactive for many years, but it is comes into a favourable environment, it begins to grow again.

Faldu Ritik 1 & Detroja Vivek K1.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology &

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the carcinogenic factor in sunlight; damage to skin cells from repeated exposure can lead to the development of cancer. UV radiation has been mainly implicated as the cause of non-melanoma skin cancer, although some role for UV in malignant melanoma has been suggested. The induction of skin cancer is mainly caused by the accumulation of mutations caused by UV damage. Cellular mechanisms exist to repair the DNA damage, or to induce apoptosis to remove severely damaged cells; however, the additive effects of mutations in genes involved in these mechanisms, or in control of the cell cycle, can lead to abnormal cell proliferation and tumor development. The molecular events in the induction of skin cancer are being actively investigated, and recent research has added to the understanding of the roles of tumor suppressor and oncogenes in skin cancer. The knowledge gained will help to better understand the ways in which skin cancer arises from UV exposure, which will in turn allow development of better methods of treatment and prevention.

Vaja Jagruti Mukeshbhai

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Clinical resistance to Streptococcus pneumoniae is a penicillin & amoxicillin was first reported by researchers in Boston in 1965. And also reported from South Africa. Since these early reports has found in that penicillin resistance has been encountered with increasing frequency of stains of S.pneumoniae from around the world. S.pneumoniae can also infected in community-acquired Pneumoniae (cap), bacterial meningitis, bacteria & otitis media, as well as important cause is septic, arthritis, osteomyelitis, peritonitis etc. Keywords: S.pneumoniae, penicillin, clinical resistance and community-acquired Pneumoniae (cap).

Khambhala Ankita J1.& Barad Sweta V2.

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology &

Acid rain pollution is discussed from the scientific and regulatory perspectives. Adverse effects of acid deposition and transboundary acidification are introduced first .Then, observational efforts and results are elaborated for acid rain precursosr, components, and depositions in the USA and China. After that, a photochemical Mechanism is presented to describe the formation of inorganic Sulfate and nitrate in the global troposphere from anthropogenic Emissions. Then, a real regulatory simulation case in support Of the formation of the third sulphur emission control area, including coastal California, USA, is illustrated using a Step-by-step description. Finally challenges in simulating acid rain are presented.

Suva Jahal M.1 and Suva Mahek S.2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology Suva Jahal M.1 and Suva Mahek S.2

Dengue, a vector born viral fever caused by various fever caused by various strain of flavivirus and transmitted by female aedes aegypti still remain a therapeutically challenged disease in spite of various anti-viral drug (ribavirin, glycyrrhizin and 6-azauridine)are under evaluation, it’s severity is more pronounced in immune-compromised patients. Also presents with dengue fever sequel as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue hemorrhagic shock a dreaded presentation among children 10 years. Drink plenty of water to avoid dehydration, don’t eat spicy and oily food, at present, no specific drug that can treat dengue fever effectively. Patient should be isolated in a mosquito-free environment to prevent the spread of disease.

Dharsenda Ekta K.1 and Kothadiya Shruti M.2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology &

Bacterial Cellulose is exopolysaccharide, produce by some bacteria. Cellulosic nanomaterialsprovide a novel and sustainable platform for the production of high performance materialsenable by nanotechnology. Bacterial Cellulose is a highly crystalline material and contains purecellulose without lignin and hemicelluloses. Bacterial Cellulose produce by aerobic bacteriareceived ample of attention due to it’s unique physiochemical properties compare to plantcellulose. The most effective producers of cellulose are A.xylinum, A.hansenii andA.pasteurianus. Bacterial Cellulose produce by some Gram Negative bacteria such asacetobacter , azetobacter, rhizobium, pseudomonas, salmonella and some Gram positivebacteria like Sarcina ventriculi. Bacerial Cellulose as biomaterial for medical field, electricalinstrument and food ingredients. Finding materials suitable for tissue replacement is animportant aspect for material devices desing and fabrication. There is a need to develop amechanical properties and the tissue is replacing but also shows improved life span,biocompatibility, nonthrombogenic and low of classification degree.

Balochiya Shruti V.1 and Kotadiya Charmy H.2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology &

Cosmetics are products of chemical or natural origindedicated specifically for use in skin and mucosa. The constantdevelopment of the cosmetic industry has generated the necessity tocarry out microbiological analysis on the raw materials used in theindustrial production of cosmetics as well as the final products, with thepurpose of obtaining products of good microbiological quality.Cosmetic products are recognized to be substrates for the survival anddevelopment of a large variety of microorganisms, since they possesssome of the nutrients that facilitate growth such as: lipids,polysaccharides, alcohol, proteins, amino acid, glycosides, esteroids,peptides and vitamins. Also condition of readiness present in thecosmetic products favour microbial multiplication. Routine analyses todetermine the microbiological quality of a cosmetic product include thefollowing: count of mesospheric aerobic microorganisms, most probablenumber of total coli forms, count of moulds and yeasts,absence/presence of staphylococcus aureus probe, absence/presenceof pseudomonas aeruginosa probe.

Vaja Kinjal1 and Solanki Neha2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology,

Ebola virus disease (EVD) described as “one of the world’s most virulent diseases” by WHO was popularly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever in the past. Usually considered a severe and deadly illness as far as humans are concerned. Transmission of virus to people from wild animals and within the human community through human-to-human contact. Natural host for Ebola virus is not yet conclusively identified but the most probable host appears to be the fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family. Five subspecies of Ebola virus are recognized till date, with Zaire Ebola virus being the most aggressive of all varieties and recording up to 90% mortality. All Ebola forms are highly contagious and hence have been classed as Category a Priority Pathogens by WHO. Severely ill patients warrant intensive support therapy. Medical workers working in affected areas need to undertake extensive measures to prevent contracting the disease. Till date, no particular anti-viral therapy has demonstrated effectiveness in Ebola virus infection. Also, no vaccine for use in humans is yet approved by the regulatory bodies. If Ebola was actually misused as a biological weapon, it could be a serious threat.

Bhut Vishruti B.1 and Ghodasara Vasu K.2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology &,

Overcoming envelope metastability is crucial to trimer based HIV-1 vaccine design. Here, we present a coherent vaccine strategy by minimizing abstract for 10 strains across five clades. We demonstrate that the gp41 ectodomain (gp” ECTO) is the main source of envelope metastability by replacing wild type gp41 ECPO with BG505 gp41 Ecto of the uncleaved prefasion optimized (UFO) design. These gp41 EGTO swapped trimmers can be produced in CHO cells with high yield and high purity the crystal structure of a gp41 ECTO swapped trimer elucidates how a neutralization resistant tier 3 virus evades antibody recognition of transmitted /founder viruses and UFO trimmers containing a consensus based ancestraced gp41 ECTO suggest an evolutionary roof of metastability. The gp41 ECTO Stabilized trimmer can be readily displayed on 24 and 60 meric nanoparticles, with incorporation of additional T-cell help illustrated for a hyperstable 60-mer, 13-01. In mice and rabbits these gp140 nanoparticles induced tier neutrylizing antibody responses more effectively them soluble trimers the envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 harbors the epitopes of all broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) and is the main target of vaccine design. The cleaved binding protein gp 100, and a transmembrane protein gp41 which anchors the ENV spike within the viral membrane and drives the fusion process during cell entry.

Korat Riya A.1 and Savaliya Megha M.2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Air pollution black carbon particles have been found in the fetal side of placentas of women exposed to air pollution, indicating that unborn babies are directly exposed to the black carbon produced by motor traffic and fuel burning. Air pollution research study now shows full-scale bodily harm, from lung and heart disease to diabetes and reduced intelligence to brittle bones and damaged the skin. World health organization calls air pollution a public health emergency and recent analysis indicates that about 8.8 million early suspect even this may be “ THE TIP OF ICEBERG ’’. The comprehensive global review concluded that air pollution and its particles may be damaging every organ and virtually every cell in our human body. The team examined twenty-five placentas from non-smoking women in Hasselt town.

Moradhra Himaxee P.1 and Dobariya Chandani G.2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major Nosocomial pathogen that causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide. MRSA strains are endemic in many American and European hospitals and account for 29% - 35% of all clinical isolates. Recent studies have documented the increased costs associated with MRSA infection, as well as the importance of colonisation pressure. Surveillance strategies have been proposed especially in strategies have been proposed especially in high risk areas such as the intensive care unit. Pneumonia and bacteraemia account for the majority of MRSA serious clinical infections, but intra-abdominal infections, osteomyelitis, toxic shock syndrome, food poisoning and deep tissue infections are also important clinical diseases. The traditional antibiotic therapy for MRSA is a glycopeptides, Vancomycin. New antibiotics have been recently released that add to the armamentarium for therapy against MRSA and include Linezolid, and Quinupristin/Dalfopristin, but cost, side effects, and resistance may limit their long term usefulness. Keywords:Staphylococcus aureus or Staph infection, Staph Spreading, Staph Treated.

Lalani Himani T.1 and Bharad Aarti L.2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Bacterial concrete or Self-healing Concrete specially made to increase the lifespan/durability of concrete structure. Percolation of cracks may lead to leakage problems causing deterioration of the concrete matrix OR corrosion of embedded steel reinforcement can be healed by bacteria in order to extend the service life. Natural processes, such as weathering, faults, land subsidence, earthquakes, and human activities create fractures and fissures in concrete structures which can reduce the service life of the structures. A novel strategy to restore or remediate such structures is bio mineralization of calcium carbonate using microbes such as Bacillus species. In the present study, Bacillus sp.CT-5, isolated from cement, was used to study compressive strength and water absorption tests. The results showed 36% increase in compressive strength of cement mortar with the addition of bacterial cells. Calcite deposition on treated cubes absorbed nearly six times less water than the control cubes. The current work demonstrates that production of “microbial concrete” by Bacillus sp. On constructed facilities enhanced the durability of building materials.

Kaneriya Foram V.1 and Vadariya Disha J.2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Mycoremediation, an aspect of bioremediation, has been investigated for some decades. However, there seems to be little progress on its commercial application to petroleum-contaminated soils despite some promising outcomes. In this review, mycoremediation is examined to identify development, limitations and perspectives for its optimal utilization on petroleum-contaminated soils. Mycoremediation agents and substrates that have been used for the treatment of petroleum contaminated soils have been identified, application methods discussed, recent advances highlighted and limitations for its applications accentuated. Possible solutions to the challenges in applying mycoremediation to petroleum-contaminated soils have also been discussed. From this review, we conclude that for optimal utilization of mycoremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils, ideal environmental, edaphic and climatic factors of a typical contaminated site must be incorporated into the approach from first principles. Development of application procedures that can easily translate laboratory results to field applications is also required.

Parmar Khushi K.1 and Yadav Rutvika V.2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology &

Development of antimicrobial resistance bacteria occurs due to repeated and improper use ofantibiotics by persons. Anti-microbial resistance is a global problem on the earth. Nowadays 70%microbes caused infection in hospital that’s why resistance initially appeared in hospital. Because ofincreasing the resistance capacity of microorganisms. A group of pathogens mainly “ESKAPE”responsible for the infections from the hospitals and are known as MDR Bacteria. There are manyfactors which affects the anti-microbial resistance such as quorum sensing, bio film, horizontal genetransfer, etc. Thought quorum sensing process bacteria communicate with each other by secretingchemical signals. Bio film also help the organisms to increase anti-microbial resistance. Bio film or groupof bacteria plays a major role in host cell defence for establishing chronic or lethal infection. With thehelp of horizontal gene transfer method, gene which is responsible for the resistance is transfer fromdonor cell to recipient cell and make them resistance again drugs and antibiotics. At this time manyresearchers developed the medicine which inhibits the antimicrobial resistance.

Sevra Janvi J.1 and Lagariya Kunjal L.2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology &

Prochlorococcus is the key phytoplanktonic organism of tropical gyres, large ocean regions thatare depleted of the essential macronutrients needed for photosynthesis and cell growth. Thiscyanobacterium has adapted itself to oligotrophy by minimizing the resources necessary for lifethrough a drastic reduction of cell and genome sizes. This rarely observed strategy in free-livingorganisms has conferred on Prochlorococcus a considerable advantage over other prototroph’s,including its closest relative Synechococcus ,for life in this vast yet little variable ecosystem. By losing some important genes and / or functions during evolution, Prochlorococcus has seemingly become dependent on co-occurring microorganisms.some of the recent advances in the ecology, biology, and evolution of this organism gave ecological importance and tiny genome of organism is rapidly imposing itself as a model organism in environmental microbiology.

Gohel Hetal1 and Sidapara Grishma2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Solar power is the earth’s most important source of energy .it is responsible for the biomass on the earth and the fossil fuels within it ‘as well for driving the weather system responsible for rain and wind. The sun can be used to generate electricity in two ways, either by using its heat as a heat source or by utilizing its light in solar cell. Solar power is an intermittent source of energy and cannot alone proviso a continuous source of electrical power. The development of both solar cell and solar thermal power generation can be traced back to the 19th century at the end of 2014. There were close to 180GW solar generating capacity around the world. The abstract contains six projects which have established six different projects worldwide. First project has a whole ecosystem approach which was very refreshing idea. Second projects are all about the creative maverick rose, love grow and manufactured. It will be a dynamic element of EC1’s st John secured from may be September. Third project is all about Solaris Ecofriendly sun, shading system for outdoor pubic spaces. Solaris aims to promote new experiments and habits for a more suitable and socially inclusive city landscape. Solaris has six wings. Forth project is all about with the prize of photovoltaic plants dropping be on the lookout for creating. New ways for homeowners are to use solar power. Eat was a solar tree two of them. Fifth project is all about the solar tree as a unique piece of environmental art that the city is honored to be the first in the nation. It is used for installing the multi facility solar tree. Six projects are all about the solar power. Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the sun. That is hardness such as range of ever involved in technology molten salt power plants and artificial photo synthesis. Keywords: Solar Energy, solar cell, solar thermal power, source of electrical power, artificial photosynthesis, radiant light

Shivani Pansuriya1 and Amee Raiyani2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Biofuels produced by algae may provide a feasible alternative to fossil fuels like petroleum sourced fuels. However, looking to limited fossil fuel associated with problems, intensive efforts have been given to search for alternative biofuels like biodiesel. Algae are ubiquitous on earth, have potential to produce biofuel. However, technology of biofuel from algae facing a number of hurdles before it can compete in the fuel market and be broadly organized. Different challenges include strain identification and improvement of algal biomass, both in terms of biofuel productivity and the production of other products to improve the economics of the entire system. Algal biofuels could be made more cost effective by extracting other valuable products from algae and algal strains. Algal oil can be prepared by culture of algae on municipal and industrial wastewaters. Photo bioreactors methods provide a controlled environment that can be tailored to the specific demands of high production of algae to attain a consistently good yield of biofuel. The algal biomass has been reported to yield high oil contents and have good amount of the biodiesel production capacity. In this article, it has been attempted to review to elucidate the approaches for making algal biodiesel economically competitive with respect to petro diesel. Consequently, R & D work has been carried out for the growth, harvesting, oil extraction and conversion to biodiesel from algal sources.

Barad Rutu N.1 and Mori Rupali P.2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by living organism. They produce light for a variety of different reasons; it can be used from catching prey to mating. The chemical reaction that results in bioluminescence requires two unique chemical: - luciferin and either luciferase or photo protein. The natural wonder of Bioluminescence is occure both terrestrially as well as marine. The Bioluminescent marine species include fish, bacteria, jellies and some bioluminescent organism, including fireflies, and fungi are found on land. In these organisiom, Bioluminescence occure for protection against prey, prey attraction and communication.

Solanki Khevana J.1 and Kansagra Janki D.2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology &

Storage of hydrogen: a future generation future, by metal organic frameworks The continuous depletion of petroleum reserves with consequent carbon emissions is a great area of concern and draws our attention towards the use of a cleaner fuel for transportation .out of many alternative renewable energy sources ,use of hydrogen seems to be the preferred choice because of its high energy content as compared to gasoline and comparatively cleaner combustion products, which may save the earth from further pollution.However one of the major challenge in use of hydrogen as transportation fuel is the storage of this highly flammable gas, whereas stationery hydrogen storage has not been a big problem.Metal organic frameworks can serve as potential hydrogen storage and carriers for mobile applications.

Vaja Shafwan H.1 and Payna Firoz S.2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

For over 30 years, stem cells have been used in the renewal of blood and immune systems damaged by the cancer cells or during treatment of cancer by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Apart from their use in the immuno-reestablishment, the stem cells have been reported to contribute in the tissue regeneration and as delivery vehicles in the cancer treatments. The recent concept of 'cancer stem cells' has directed scientific communities towards a different wide new area of research field and possible potential future treatment method aimed at the cancer. Aim of current research focus on the recent developments in the use of the stem cells in the cancer treatments, what is cancer stem cells, backbone in the development of the cancer; and their role in carcinogenesis and their implications in the development of possible new cancer treatment options in future.

Antroliya Mahendrakumar*1 and Kamani Ritul2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

In recent times about 1 million people suffering from a cancer post chemotherapy side effect. Since ancient time natural products herbs and spices have been used for preventing several diseases including cancer by using derivative phytochemicals or their analogs. The field utilizes experimental carcinogenesis models to examine the efficiency of chemo preventive agents in a stage-specific manner. A number of them have progressed to early clinical trials. Natural product like fruits, vegetables, tea & spices contains a potential molecule to prevent tumor & cancer cell. A brief literature review presented here shows that these natural molecules prove itself as a beneficial for society and human health & also will prove as great revolution in cancer researches. Keywords: Chemoprevention, Phytochemicals, Carcinogenesis

Delvadiya Janki P.1 and Hingrajiya Bhavya M.2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Pharmacovigilance called as drug safety (pharmakon - drug, vigilare - to keep watch). It is the study of the study of the safety of marketed drugs examined under the practical conditions of clinical use in large communities. Pharmacovigilance use for monitoring and evaluating science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs). Any noxious change which is suspected to be due to a drug, occurs at doses normally used in human, requires treatment or decrease in dose or indicates caution in future use of same drug. ADRs are major clinical problem and may lead to disability, congenital anomalies and even death. Pharmacovigilance came into existence after adverse drug reaction of Thalidomide disaster. The roles of health care professionals actually could have collecting reports of ADR and more widely in pharmacovigilance.

Satasiya Priya1 and Dodiya Dixita2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

Nanorobotics is an emerging, advanced and multidisciplinary field that calls for scientific and technical expertise of medical, pharmaceutical, bio-medical, engineering as well as other applied and basic scientists. Nanorobots differ from macro-world robots, specifically in their nanosized constructs. Assembly and realization of nanorobots depend on the principles of molecular nanotechnology and machanosynthetic chemistry. Practically, these systems are nanoelectromechanical devices that are capable to carry out pre-programmed functions in a reliable and accurate manner with the help of energy provide by a pre-installed nanomotor or nanomachine bye to their small size and wide functional properties, nanorobots have createdexceptional prospects in medical, biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Although, no technology is available to construct artificial nanorobots, it is now possible to create nanorobots by using biological means. The review presents a brief discussion on basic nanorobotics and it’s possible applications in medical, biomedical and pharmaceutical research.

Parmar Aarati P.1 and Zankat Devsmita V.2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology &

Ayurveda and other Indian system of medicine use metals, but their use is also amply described in Chinese and Egyptian civilization in 2500 B.C. Bhasma are unique Ayurvedic mettalic/minerals Preparation, treated with herbal juice or decoction and exposed for Ayurveda, which are known in Indian subcontinent since 7th century A.D. and widely recommended for treatment of a variety of chronic ailments. Animal's derivative such as horns, shells, feathers, metallic, nonmetallic and herbals are normally administered as Bhasma. A Bhasma means an ash obtained through incineration: There are various importance of Bhasma like maintaining optimum alkalinity for optimum bealth, neutralizing harmful acids that lead to illness: because Bhasma do not get metabolized so they don't produce any barmful metabolite, rather it breakdowns heavy metals in the body. Bhasma preparation and Bhasma are the best example of nanotechnology and Nanomedicine practiced during period. Bhasma -safe, quick, effective remedial measure. Methods including for Bhasma preparation are parpati, rasayoga, sindora. Bhasma which contains Fe. Cu, S or other manufacturing process plays a specific role in the final product. Standardization of Bhasma is utmost necessary to confirm Its identity and to determine its quality, purity safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the product. But the most important challenges faced by these formulations are the lack of complete standardization by physiochemical parameters.

Poshia Hinal C.1 and Baraiya Bansi M.2

Department of Life Science, College of Computer, Science & Information Technology

The term thalassemia is used to define various hereditary anemias that are identified by a reduced production of one of the globin chains that from the hemoglobin molecule.Thalassemia syndromes are widely distributed throughout Mediterranean,middle eastern, & asian countries & occur with a significant incidence worldwide in populations that originated in these regions.The thalassemia probably represent the most common single gene disorder to cause a major public health problem in the world.In the Mediterranean area alone there are more than 20,000 ß-homozygous thalassemia patients, & according to the world health organization approximately 180 million people are heterozygous for one of several forms of genetic disorder of hemoglobin synthesis.In ß-thalassemia there is deficient or absent synthesis of the ß-globin chains that constitute the adult hemoglobin molecule.Because ß-thalassemia is genetic dieases in which the known expression of the genetic defect is located in the hematopoietic system, it is rationally curable by hemotopoietic stem cell transplantion & bone marrow transplantion.The first successfull transplant in thalassemia was in an untransfused in 14-month old child & was reported by Thomas in 1982. Keywords: Anemia, homozygous, heterozygous, hematopoietic system, stem cells, bone marrow, globin chain

Kuldip Zala1 and Jenish Solanki2

Shri Patel Kelavani Mandal College of Technology & B.Ed. - Junagadh

Snake bite is an important occupational and rural hazard because India has always been a land of Exotic snakes. It is a fact that inspite of heavy morbidity and mortality, very little attention is paid by the clinicians to this occupational hazard. The worldwide burden of snakebite is high, especially in remote regions with lesser accessibility to professional healthcare. Snake venom is a poisonous secretion manufactured in the modified salivary glands, called the poison glands. The venom is injected in the body of bitten prey through the fangs which serve as hypodermic needles. The venom of different snakes has its own characteristic effect. The bitten person may die or recover depending upon the amount injected and its virulence. The diagnosis and treatment of venomous snake bites is sometimes difficult for clinicians because sufficient information has not been provided in clinical practice. The best cure for snake bite is to inject antivenom serum or antivenin into the body of the victim. Antivenin counteracts snake venom. Many preventive measures and first aid measures are present. Also medicinal plants have curative properties against snake bite. Plant material was extracted by simple maceration and fractionation of active plant extracts. The platelet count gradually decreases due to the platelet aggregation activity of the venom. Key word: Poisonous and Non poisonous snake, Snake bite, Antivenin, Treatment

Vaja Hardik M.1 and Panara Riya J.2

College of Computer, Science & Information Technology, Junagadh,

Animal venoms are used as defense mechanisms or to immobilize and digest prey. Venoms are complex mixtures of enzymatic components with patho-physiological functions. Thispresentation shows the medicinal uses of venom to treat different types of disease. Some venom derived drugs are really very helpful for human health. So many people die because of venom of venomous animals and most of the people see venom as a very bad substance on the earth but with the help of advance science and technology it is possible to make venom beneficial for human health. Snakes, Scorpions, Cone Snail, Comodo Dragon, Gila Monster are the animals whome Venom help to make drugs which can cure major diseases of human being. Scorpions and other animals that deploy toxins to survive are becoming increasingly important allies in humanity’s fight against ailments ranging from cardiovascular to diabetes and cancer. Captopril is the notable example of venom derived drug. Captopril is an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor prescribed for treating high blood pressure, heart failure, and for preventing kidney failure due to high blood pressure and diabetes.This presentation shows that how venom of animals can be a beneficial compound for human health and in future it can save many lives.

Hasmukh dabhi

Om College Of Science-Chokli, Junagadh

Diabetes is the disease that is most common throughout the world. In this disease, there is high level of glucose due to the low production of insulin. Due to the limited number of donors for pancreas, stem cells technology has been used to produce insulin producing pancreatic cells.By using these different stem cell technologies there was the production of insulin but the Beta cells that were produce from human fetal pancreatic stem cells gave the good results. In future, it could be possible that there will be the excellent cure for the diabetes using these stem cells technologies. These technologies will help us to fully eradicate the diabetes from the roots. Keywords: diabetes, stemcelltreatment, insulin

Vivek Vasa1 and Jekin Ghaghra2

Shri Patel Kelavani Mandal College of Technology & Bed, Junagadh

The banana is an important commodity and India is the largest producer of banana next to mango. In Gujarat, banana crop is cultivated in about 11 districts. Fruit, peel, leaf, pseudo-stem, stalk and inflorescence of banana plant can be used for various purposes. Among these, banana pseudo-stem usually becomes biomass waste and its disposal is a major challenge. However, the pseudo-stem can be used to prepare pickle, candy, soft drink, fiber, paper, handy craft, liquid fertilizer, clothes, and vermi-compost. Banana fiber can be used to prepare various valueadded product like cushion cover, bags, tablecloths, curtains. Moreover, rugs made from banana silk yarnfibers very popular all over the world and also provide rural employment to farmer community. Banana fiber is alternative to pulp industries, eco friendly and biodegradable comparing to synthetic fibers. Hence, banana pseudo-stem fiber is an eco friendly alternate to plastics.The popularity of Sustainable clothing has increased over the passing years, from fashion industry to textile and clothing retail market consumers and manufacturers are considering sustainable clothing designs on every day basis.India is the world's largest banana producer with an annual output of 24.8 million tonnes. India accounts for 22 per cent of the global banana production. Banana fibre is also a major substitute to the pulp industry. Keywords: Banana, Eco-friendly, Pseudo-stem, Textile.

Ruchi S. Gondaliya1 and Vishwa R. Gajera2

Shree Sardar Patel Mahila B.Sc. College, Junagadh

Noni (Morinda citrifolia) is the small tropical evergreen tree native to South-East Asia whose whole fruit, juice, seed, leaf, bark and root are used as sources of traditional medicines by Australian aboriginal, Pacific Island and South-East Asian communities. These plant parts have shown antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. Noni cultivation has spread extensively to regions such as Mexico, Central and South America, and in recent years its economic value has grown significantly worldwide due to assertions of its health benefits. The largest markets for noni products are North America, Europe, Japan, Mexico, Asia and Australia. It is sold mainly as juice, but the fruit is also often marketed in its fresh, unprocessed form in both formal and informal markets. Optimization of agricultural techniques, postharvest practices and processing technologies for noni are required. Postharvest handling information on the fruit is quite scarce. Keywords: Traditional medicine, worldwide, processed food

Raviraj Rathod1 and Milan Sapariya 2

Shree H. N. Shukla College of Science, Rajkot

Antibiotics are useful in eliminating bacteria that cause disease in our body, but bacteria have ability to resist that antibiotics by means of having antimicrobial resistant gene, this gene help bacteria to resist and survive against antibiotics. This is major problem of now days and many people dies and suffer from various disease caused by bacteria and that bacteria have ability to resist antibiotics so in todays world it is necessary to find a way to treat that which type of bacteria would have antimicrobial resistant gene which helps the bacteria to modify itself and be resistant to specific types of antibiotics. This concept will help in dealing with use of specific bacteriophages which will be genetically modified with the help of CRISPR technique. In this technique bacteriophage are used so that as phage only infect bacteria and particularly only infect to specific bacteria so that it won’t be harmful for human body. Genetically modified bacteriophage will direct attack to our target organism which are disease causing microorganism and infect those bacteria and then it will be identify gene of bacteria that have ability to antimicrobial resistant and breakdown that gene so now bacteria have no ability to survive in presence of antibiotics.

Trivedi Sandhyaben kiritkumar1, Dr. U. K. Kandoliya2 , Bhorania Nirali3 , Thummar Khushbu A.4

Department of Biotechnology, J.A.U., Junagadh &

Green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) is one of the major pulse crops of India which is cultivated from humid tropic to arid and semi-arid regions. Green gram belongs to family Fabaceae with a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 22. A seed of Green gram contains moisture 9.4%, ash 3.9%, protein 23.7%, fat 1.9%, fiber 6.8% and carbohydrate 54.9% having a energy value of green gram (340 kcal/100g). Green gram seeds are rich in protein and deficiency in the sulphur containing amino acid like methionine and cysteine determined the seeds quality. In the coastal area of saurashtra region, green gram is often irrigated with having a varying salinity levels; this study demonstrated about the possible role of salicylic acid to modify different physiological parameters, biochemical constitute including different osmolytes and quality parameters as well as Reactive Oxygen Species scavenging system including different antioxidative enzymes against use of saline water for tolerance to saline condition. Salicylic acid influences different physiological and biochemical aspects that help in mitigating their deleterious effects of salinity stress to varying extents for improving seed quality of green gram.

Vijay parmar1 and Dr. Suhas Vyas2

Department of Life Sciences, Bhakta Kavi Narsinh Mehta University, Junagadh.

In nature amazing phenomenon is observed the symbiotic relationship between plant Cicer arietinum and fungi Geastrum saccatum (mycor-rhizal association). There are several mycorrhizal association found between many species, which can be considered as one of nature’s boons for sustainable agriculture. Environment issues related to indiscriminate use of pesticides and chemicals pose a great threat to the existence of mycorrhizal species in the era of climate change. There is a need to spread awareness in order to save mycorrhizal fungi from extinction. Plant roots host a wide range of microorganisms that, together with the quality of soil and climatic conditions, represent the main factors that influence plant health, growth and development. Some microorganisms can facilitate use of soil fertility and optimize plant growth to a point that they are considered natural bio-fertilizers. The major fact behind the enhancement of the growth in C. arietinum may be due to increase of nitrogen fixation which is provided by the fungus G. saccatum. In this context, mycorrhizae are mutualistic partnerships between fungi that live in soil and the roots of most terrestrial plants. During period of active plant growth, mycorrhiza is a symbiotic assotion between a plant and non-pathogenic fungus that colonize the cortical tissue of root. Mycorrhiza can symbiotically intract with more than 90% of vascular plant or Woody plant families. Mycorrhiza is used as bio-fertilizer and represents the main factors that influence Cicer arietinum health, growth development and high productivity and it act as natural fertilizer. The present work is to observe the growth of C. arietinum due to fungus G. saccatum and their symbiotic relationship. Key word: mycorrhiza; mycelium; Cicer arietinum; Geastrum saccatum; vascular plant; woody plants

Patel Rushi Niteshbhai1 and Rohit Pavan Maganbhai2

B. N. Patel Institute of Paramedical and Science (Science Division), Anand
ruc2212 &

Goldenseal is usully consumed in tea or capsules to treat respiratory and digestive problems. However, it may also conmbat bacterial biarrhea and urinary tractinfectuions. In addition, results of a recent study support the use of golbenseal to treat skin in inctions. In lab, goldenseal extracts were used to prevent MRSA from damaging tissue. Goldenseal capsules are available in halth store.

Dhruv Girishbhai Sangani1 and Pratik Ambalal Chauhan2

B. N. Patel Institute of Paramedical and Science (Science Division), Anand &

We deserve extraordinary immunity system. We forget our Ayurveda science and uses. Fasting is way of these therapy. We are unknown of this technique. Auto therapy is proved experiment by yoshinori 0p. He is biologist in Japan. There is no particular drugs used in therapy. A Hungry body first eats damage and cancer cell .One T cells kills thousands of Cancer cells. Allopathic says you are ill we give a pill. But Ayurveda says we never ill because we are the pill. In our own immunity by nature is including body skin, mucus in all main trubelus, in women vagina pH is acidic, in mouth saliva there is lysosome, in blood WBC, microphages, interferon, inflammatory reaction, fever, natural killer cells. We are not a t tiny little part of this universe, but the whole universe in us.

Kamini Sunilbhai Sonvani1 and Kajal Vijaybhai Bharda2

B. N. Patel Institute of Paramedical and Science (Science Division), Anand &

Nearly 70 years after the invention of chemotherapy, new treatment still come with dangerous risks. In the 69 years since the first clinical demonstration of chemotherapy, outcome for most cancers have improved dramatically. But newly approved treatment called car-t is already changing the calculus.

Makwana Jyoti Kiritbhai1 and Makwana Jyoti Kiritbhai2

B. N. Patel Institute of Paramedical and Science (Science Division), Anand &

Surgical removal of the cervix, surrounding tissues called the parametnans Lymph node aissaction, Cryosargery, Raaiution therapy, chemotherapynternet. A malignant tumour of the lower-most part of the uterus that can be prevented by PAN smear screening and a HPV vaccine. Symptoms and Sings -Blood spots or light bleeding between or following periods. Increased vaginal discharge. The chance of living for at least fve years after being diagnosed with cervical cancer

Shah Kruti Shaunakkumar1 and Prajapati Nirali Kamleshbhai2

B. N. Patel Institute of Paramedical and Science (Science Division), Anand &

There are few drugs that can seriously lay claim to the title of wonder drug pencillin & aspirin being two that have perhaps had greatest beneficial impact on the health and wellbeing of mankind. Indicative of the impact, Brazil where some 80% of the bovine herd is infested, losses total about $2 billion annually. In referring to the international efforts to tackle on chocerciasis in which ivemectin is now the sole control tool, the UNESCO world science report concluded, the progress that has been made in combating the disease represents one of the most triumphaant public health campaings ever waged in the developing world.

Rathva Himanshu1 and Ladani Bhargavkumar2

B. N. Patel Institute of Paramedical and Science (Science Division), Anand &

Also known as 'Special K', this drug is commonly used as a horse tranquiliser. It's also a frequent option for recreational drug takers at music festivals and raves. But a 2012 study found ketamine could in fact fight the symptoms of chronic depression. The study claims the drug aids the growth of brain synapses, a neurological structure which allows chemical signals to pass more easily and effectively throughout your nervous system, making a person more reactive to the world around them.

Hiral Gami

T.N.Rao College, Rajkot

The spilled petroleum constitutes (hydrocarbons) are one of the main environmental pollutants. Their abundance and persistence in several polluted environmental areas have been reported. Oil spillage may be caused by natural disasters like earthquakes in the sea surface or due to accidental leaks during exploration, refining, storage and transportation. The causes can be numerous but the consequences are the same. In case of crude oil, the different types such as heavy or light crude oil can affect the clean-up procedures. Different petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated samples were collected from different paces and petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were isolated from these samples using Bushnell-Haas medium and King's B agar. The identification of these petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria is done by biochemical test. The selected petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were able to degrade petroleum hydrocarbon.

Tixit Sagpariya

T.N.Rao College, Rajkot

Medicinal plants have been used for years in daily life to treat diseases all over the world. Due to presence of antimicrobial phytochemicals, the medicinal plants have ability to inhibit the growth of microorganism. Thus, The study was carried out to screen and evaluate antimicrobial activity of fresh extracts of seven medicinal plants like Citrus limon, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Azadirachta indica, Datura innoxia, Cataranthus roseus, Syzygium aromaticum. There were nine laboratory microorganism used to check antimicrobial activity for the study i.e. Actinobacter spp., E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Salmonella typhi, Micrococcus spp. , B. megaterium and three unknown microorganism using agar well diffusion method. On the basis of study, it was observed that all test microorganisms highly susceptible to lemon juice. It was also observed that all test organisms susceptible to garlic bulb extract except E. coli. Onion bulb extract also inhibit the growth of five test organism i.e. E. coli, Micrococcus spp., B. megaterium and unknown microorganism 1 and 2. Extract of Datura leaves is able to inhibit the growth of four test organism i.e. B. megaterium and three unknown microorganism while Extract of neem leaves is able to inhibit the growth of five test organism i.e. Actinobacter spp., B. megaterium and three unknown microorganism. Extract of periwinkle leaves can only inhibit the growth of unknown 3 microorganisms. Clove seed extract did not show any inhibition of growth of test microorganism. It is recommended that further work should be done to identify the specific phytochemicals responsible for this antimicrobial effect, purify it to use for medicinal purpose.

Odedara Rushita1 and Odedara Pooja2

T.N.Rao College, Rajkot

The spilled petroleum constitutes (hydrocarbons) are one of the main environmental pollutants. Their abundance and persistence in several polluted environmental areas have been reported. Oil spillage may be caused by natural disasters like earthquakes in the sea surface or due to accidental leaks during exploration, refining, storage and transportation. The causes can be numerous but the consequences are the same. In case of crude oil, the different types such as heavy or light crude oil can affect the clean-up procedures. Different petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated samples were collected from different paces and petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were isolated from these samples using Bushnell-Haas medium and King's B agar. The identification of these petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria is done by biochemical test. The selected petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were able to degrade petroleum hydrocarbon.